Showing 3217 results

Name

Gonzaga, Aloysius, 1568-1591, Saint

  • IT ARSI
  • Person
  • 1568-1591

Being selfless in the care of others is a quality to which Jesuits and all Christians aspire. Though he lived only a short life, Saint Aloysius Gonzaga gave his time in the service of God and of those in need.

Aloysius Gonzaga was born in 1568 to a prominent noble Italian family, the eldest of seven children. As the firstborn son, he would inherit the title of Marquis (of high social rank) from his father, and so from an early age his father set about instructing him in the ways of the court, as well as in military training. At five he was sent to a military camp and at eight he served with his younger brother at the court of Grand Duke Francesco I de’ Medici in Florence. Here Gonzaga grew ill, contracting a kidney disease which would remain to trouble him over the course of his life. While convalescing, he read religious books and spent much time in prayer. This spiritual side of Gonzaga began to develop further, at the age of nine he swore a private vow of chastity and at twelve he received first Holy Communion. Shortly after he decided he wanted to become a Jesuit.

Gonzaga’s father, expecting his son to take on the title of Marquis after him, was appalled at the idea. At first he tried convincing his son to give up the idea of entering ecclesiastical service, and when this failed, tried to instead persuade him to become a secular priest, with the notion of assisting his ascension up the hierarchy. Gonzaga refused, and in 1585 travelled to Rome where he entered the noviciate of the Society of Jesus, giving up all rights of inheritance. Two years later he took the three religious vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, and began studying theology in preparation for ordination.

In 1591 a plague broke out in Rome, and Gonzaga volunteered at a Jesuit hospital. Here he cared for the sick and dying, taking them in off the streets and nursing them. After being forbade to continue working at the hospital for fear that he would contract the disease, Gonzaga refused and requested permission to go on working. His superiors relented, but only allowed him help at a different hospital, which only accepted noncontagious cases. Here however Gonzaga fell ill, and remained so for several months before dying at the age of twenty three. Beatified in 1605 and canonised in 1726, Saint Aloysius Gonzaga is the patron saint of young students and of all Christian youth.

Moreau, Joseph, 1864-1949, Jesuit priest and missioner

  • Person
  • 1864-1949

Fr Moreau, a French Jesuit, with the help of Fr Jules Torrend, SJ established the Chikuni Mission in Zambia in 1905 after several other Jesuits had died trying to bring the faith into that country.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lusaka

  • Corporate body
  • 1927-

Established in 1927, as Apostolic Prefecture of Broken Hill (from Apostolic Prefecture of Zambese). Lost territories in 1936 to establish Apostolic Prefecture of Victoria Falls (now its suffragan diocese Livingstone) and in 1938 to establish Apostolic Prefecture of Ndola (now its suffragan diocese). Renamed in 1946 after its see as Apostolic Prefecture of Lusaka. Promoted in 1950 Apostolic Vicariate of Lusaka. Promoted in 1959 as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lusaka. Lost territories in 1962 to establish Diocese of Monze and in 2011 to establish Diocese of Kabwe, both as its suffragans.

Society of Jesus

  • IE IJA
  • Corporate body
  • 1540-

The Society of Jesus was founded in 1540 by Ignatius of Loyola and since then has grown from the original seven to 24, 400 members today who work out of 1,825 houses in 112 countries. In the intervening 455 years many Jesuits became renowned for their sanctity (41 Saints and 285 Blesseds), for their scholarship in every conceivable field, for their explorations and discoveries, but especially for their schools. The Society is governed by General Congregations, the supreme legislative authority which meets occasionally. The present Superior General is Father Arturo Sosa. Ignatius Loyola was a Spanish Basque soldier who underwent an extraordinary conversion while recuperating from a leg broken by a cannon ball in battle (see picture). He wrote down his experiences which he called his Spiritual Exercises and later he founded the Society of Jesus with the approval of Pope Paul III in 1540.

From the very beginning, the Society served the Church with outstanding men: Doctors of the Church in Europe as well as missionaries in Asia, India, Africa and the Americas. Men like Robert Bellarmine and Peter Canisius spearheaded the Counter Reformation in Europe, courageous men like Edmund Campion assisted the Catholics in England suffering under the terrible Elizabethan persecutions and missionaries like deNobili Claver, González, deBrito, Brebeuf, and Kino brought the Gospel to the ends of the earth. No other order has more martyrs for the Faith.

Ignatius Loyola had gathered around him an energetic band of well-educated men who desired nothing more than to help others find God in their lives. It was Ignatius’ original plan that they be roving missionaries such as Francis Xavier, who would preach and administer the sacraments wherever there was the hope of accomplishing the greater good. It soon became clear to Ignatius that colleges offered the greatest possible service to the church, by moral and religious instruction, by making devotional life accessible to the young and by teaching the Gospel message of service to others. From the very beginning these Jesuit schools became such an influential part of Catholic reform that this novel Jesuit enterprise was later called “a rebirth of the infant church”. The genius and innovation Ignatius brought to education came from his Spiritual Exercises whose object is to free a person from predispositions and biases, thus enabling free choices leading to happy, fulfilled lives.

Jesuits were always deeply involved in scholarship, in science and in exploration. By 1750, 30 of the world’s 130 astronomical observatories were run by Jesuit astronomers and 35 lunar craters have been named to honor Jesuit scientists. The so-called “Gregorian” Calendar was the work of the Jesuit Christopher Clavius, the “most influential teacher of the Renaissance”. Another Jesuit, Ferdinand Verbiest, determined the elusive Russo-Chinese border and until recent times no foreign name was as well known in China as the Jesuit Matteo Ricci, “Li-ma-teu”, whose story is told by Jonathan Spence in his 1984 best seller. China has recently erected a monument to the Jesuit scientists of the 17th century – in spite of the fact that since 1948 120 Jesuits languished in Chinese prisons. By the way, no other religious order has spent as many man-years in jail as the Jesuit order.

Jesuits were called the schoolmasters of Europe during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, not only because of their schools but also for their pre-eminence as scholars, scientists and the thousands of textbooks they composed. During their first two centuries the Jesuits were involved in an explosion of intellectual activity, and were engaged in over 740 schools.

Then suddenly these were all lost in 1773. Pope Clement XIV yielding to pressure from the Bourbon courts, fearing the loss of his Papal States, and anticipating that other European countries would follow the example of Henry VIII (who abandoned the Catholic Church and took his whole country with him), issued his brief Dominus ac Redemptor suppressing the Society of Jesus. This religious Society of 23,000 men dedicated to the service of the church was disbanded. The property of the Society’s many schools was either sold or made over into a state controlled system. The Society’s libraries were broken up and the books either burned, sold or snatched up by those who collaborated in the Suppression. As if unsure of himself the Pope promulgated the brief of suppression in an unusual manner which caused perplexing canonical difficulties. So when Catherine, Empress of Russia, rejected the brief outright and forbade its promulgation, 200 Jesuits continued to function in Russia.

That Jesuits take their special vow of obedience to the pope quite seriously is evident from their immediate compliance with distasteful papal edicts. Clement XIV’s Suppression is one example. Another occurred earlier in 1590 when Pope Sixtus V wanted to exclude Jesus from the official name of the Society. Jesuits immediately complied and offered alternate names but Sixtus died unexpectedly before his wish could be carried out. Included among these occasional papal intrusions in the Society’s governance was Pope John Paul II’s appointment of a delegate to govern the Society during Superior General Arrupe’s illness. So edified was he at the Society’s immediate compliance that the pope later lavished extraordinary praise on the Jesuit Order.

The Society was restored 41 years after the Suppression in 1814 by Pope Pius VII. Although many of the men had died by then, the memory of their educational triumphs had not, and the new Society was flooded with requests to take over new colleges: in France alone, for instance, 86 schools were offered to the Jesuits. Since 1814 the Society has experienced amazing growth and has since then surpassed the apostolic breadth of the early Society in its educational, intellectual, pastoral and missionary endeavors.

They form a Jesuit network, not that they are administered in the same way, but that they pursue the same goals and their success is evident in their graduates, men and women of vast and varied talent.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Harare

  • Corporate body
  • 1955-

1879: Established as Mission “sui iuris” of Zambese from the Apostolic Vicariate of Natal in South Africa
1915: Promoted as Apostolic Prefecture of Zambese
1927: Renamed as Apostolic Prefecture of Salisbury
1931: Promoted as Apostolic Vicariate of Salisbury
1955: Promoted as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Salisbury
1982: Renamed as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Harare

Therry, John Joseph, 1790-1864, Roman Catholic priest

  • Person
  • 1790-1864

John Joseph Therry (1790-1864), Catholic priest, the son of John Therry, of Cork, Ireland, and his wife Eliza, née Connolly, was educated privately and at St Patrick's College, Carlow. Ordained priest in 1815, he was assigned to parochial work in Dublin and then Cork, where he became secretary to the bishop, Dr Murphy. His interest in Australia, aroused by the transportation of Irish convicts and the publicity surrounding the forced return of Father Jeremiah O'Flynn in 1818, came to the notice of Bishop Edward Bede Slater, whom Pius VII had appointed vicar-apostolic of the 'Cape of Good Hope, Madagascar, Mauritius, and New Holland with the adjacent islands'. At the same time the Colonial Office had consented under the pressure of radical demand, the increasing influence of the Irish hierarchy and the somewhat diffident promptings of Bishop Poynter, vicar-apostolic of the London district, to send two official Roman Catholic chaplains to New South Wales. Recommended by his own bishop as a capable, zealous and 'valuable young man', Therry sailed from Cork under a senior priest, Father Philip Conolly, in the Janus, which carried more than a hundred prisoners. They arrived in Sydney, authorized by both church and state, in May 1820.

Therry described his life in Australia for the next forty-four years as 'one of incessant labour very often accompanied by painful anxiety'. Popular, energetic and restless, he appreciated from the beginning the delicacy of his role. He had to be at once a farseeing pastor making up for years of neglect, a conscientious official of an autocratic British colonial system, and a pragmatic Irish supporter of the democratic freedoms. Though respectful of authority and grateful for co-operation, he was impatient of any curtailment of what he considered his own legal or social rights as a Catholic priest in a situation governed by extraordinary circumstances.

The immediate tasks of instruction, visitation and administration of the Sacraments went ahead, and Governor Lachlan Macquarie's initial attitude of executive peremptoriness combined with abrupt, detailed regulation gave way to a gruff but friendly trust. Commissioner John Thomas Bigge was courteous and helpful. In 1821 Father Conolly, an eccentric temperamentally incompatible with his companion, went to Van Diemen's Land, leaving Therry for five seminal years the only priest on the mainland. Articulate and thorough, he set himself the task of attending to every aspect of the moral and religious life of the Catholics. He travelled unceasingly, living with his scattered people wherever they were to be found, sometimes using three or four horses in a day. His influence was impressive among the Protestant settlers and outstanding among the convicts. His correspondence shows the trust they placed in him. For the rest of his life he was banker, adviser and arbitrator to many of them as well as spiritual director and community leader. He also early formed a lasting interest in the Aboriginals, who became very attached to him. He pleaded the cause of their education to Governor (Sir) Ralph Darling and in 1834 wrote to the governor's private secretary renewing his offer of services and accommodation.

The building of a church in Sydney, planned from the first days of the chaplaincy, was one of Therry's main preoccupations. The assistance or substantial tolerance of the leading colonists was assured, and on 29 October 1821 Governor Macquarie laid the foundation stone of St Mary's Church on a site he had assigned at the edge of Hyde Park, near the convict barracks. Francis Greenway made himself available for consultation on the architecture and construction. John Campbell, John Piper and Frederick Goulburn were regularly involved in the organization of subscriptions. Government help was promised, but Therry was criticized for the elaborate design and size of the building, and the project quickly got out of hand financially. His accounts, never very coherent though always scrupulously maintained, became progressively more chaotic as his charities multiplied and the financing of schools and churches in Sydney, Parramatta, and the outlying townships involved him in attempts to raise funds by farming and stock-breeding. The scattered and casual nature of his dealings, the absence of a reliable and able book-keeper and his own sanguine character made financial crisis inevitable. His failure to separate private and public matters hampered and indeed later crippled his apostolate. But demands for his service came from the hospital, gaols, farms, the government establishments, his own day and Sunday schools, and from road-gangs and assigned convicts. He went, whenever summoned, to Wollongong, Goulburn, Maitland, Bathurst and Newcastle.

Oppressive behaviour by officials or settlers towards the soldiers or convicts angered him, particularly where religious issues were involved. He was bitterly resentful of his exclusion from certain government institutions, especially the Orphan School, where he was unhappy about children whose parents were Catholic being baptized and instructed by the Anglican chaplains. By 1824, however, the patronage of Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane and his own growing experience encouraged him to hope for impartiality and support. He was confident that, with the arrival of new priests to share his work, a remarkable expansion of Catholic practice and activity was possible. With the aid of his committees, trustees and friends, and the advent of what he termed 'a free, liberal and talented press', he began to feel secure. He had even been held up by the governor as a model of discrimination and good judgment to the zealous and horrified Presbyterian pioneer, the recently arrived Dr John Dunmore Lang.

When the British government decided on a major religious adjustment to ensure the stability and increase the influence of the straining overseas branches of the state Church, Therry along with other Dissenters found himself fighting once more for permission to carry out vital services of his ministry. In New South Wales the appointment of Archdeacon Thomas Scott was accompanied by the creation of the Church and School Corporation in 1825. In its provisions the Church of England was overwhelmingly favoured. Therry was proud of his friendship and contacts with non-Catholics and irenical rather than sectarian by conviction, but found it hard enough to cope with the demands of the ten thousand Catholics for assembly, instruction and burial without the added unwelcome prospect of perpetual disputes with the privileged Anglicans over precedence, registration, fees and access to colonial funds. Already a rallying point for religious grievance, he now became prominent in a possible opposition party. On 14 June 1825 the Sydney Gazette misquoted him as having but 'qualified' respect for 'the other Revd. Gentlemen of the Establishment'. The incident was magnified in a time of tension. Bathurst was shocked at Therry's pragmatic approach to those regulations he regarded as unjust or petty and at his open assault on religious monopoly. He was removed from his official situation as chaplain and his salary was withdrawn soon after the arrival of Governor Darling. Despite frequent and general protest he was not reinstated until 1837. However, Therry had grown accustomed to fend for himself and saw that the generosity of his friends and his countrymen would enable him to carry on much as he had done. He decided to stay and to represent his claims. His criticisms were enthusiastically taken up by William Charles Wentworth and Robert Wardell in the Australian, and Edward Smith Hall in the Monitor. Darling distrusted Therry's influence among the convicts, but decided to ignore rather than to expel him, chiefly because his removal 'would in all probability have called forth some expression of the public opinion in his favour'.

The withdrawal of government approval involved Therry in continual disabilities and hindrances in the exercise of his priestly functions, especially in the visitation of the sick and dying in gaols and hospitals, and in the performance of marriages. But even after the arrival of Father Daniel Power as official chaplain in December 1826 Therry remained the chief influence. The two priests had more work than they could deal with, but Therry's impetuosity and Power's inadequate health led them into a series of collisions, particularly when the building of St Mary's came to a standstill and Therry demanded more vigorous action. Father Power died in March 1830 and Therry was again left alone with his mounting debts and worries. His genius for publicity and organization is illustrated in the repeated representations made on his behalf by the principal officials and magistrates, and supported in March 1830 by over 1400 householders. Grudgingly he was permitted to act as chaplain without status or salary. His popularity and energy made it impossible for Father Christopher Dowling, who arrived in September 1831, to replace him in the public estimation, much to the chagrin of both newcomer and governor.

The arrival of Governor Bourke, the news of Catholic emancipation, the collapse of the Church and School Corporation, and the appointment first of Roger Therry as commissioner of the Court of Requests in 1829 and of John Hubert Plunkett as solicitor-general in 1832, both loyal friends of Therry, offered new opportunities for Catholic progress. Yet Therry was still frustrated and unrecognized when Father John McEncroe landed in June 1832. McEncroe was quite capable of managing the indomitable but stubborn veterans and making them lifelong colleagues and confidants. A dispute about the St Mary's land had become deadlocked through Therry's obstinacy, and disastrous litigation was in prospect when Bishop Morris, Slater's successor, appointed the English Benedictine, Father William Ullathorne, as his vicar-general in the colony. Despite his youth, Ullathorne's confidence and ecclesiastical authority enabled him to take over the reins from Therry when he arrived in February 1833. The first bishop, John Bede Polding, came in 1835 and Therry went willingly as parish priest to Campbelltown, with an area extending beyond Yass as his immediate care. By Bourke's Church Act of 1836 the principle of religious equality had been accepted in the colony, and in April 1837 he was restored to a government salary.

In April 1838 he was sent by Polding to Van Diemen's Land as vicar-general. It was intended also that he should visit Port Phillip on his way, but he did not do so, going to Launceston and thence to Hobart Town, where Father Conolly had become estranged from his people, and the usual difficulties had arisen about jurisdiction, salaries and the deeds of church land. Therry reconciled Conolly before the latter's death in August 1839. He visited the interior and attended to the convicts. His church building at Hobart and Launceston was assisted by Sir John Franklin's spasmodic patronage, but on St Joseph's Hobart, and on the schools demanded by the free settlers, he overreached himself. Loneliness, responsibility, illness and debt pressed heavily on him and he found himself again struggling for justice and religious equality in the government institutions. In July 1841 he visited Sydney briefly to get help and to try to clear up some of his business entanglements. There he was consulted by Caroline Chisholm, whom he was able to help and advise about her first plans to work among the emigrants. Though sick, he was thinking of a mission to New Zealand and perhaps the Pacific Islands, and formed an interest which in 1860 prompted him to implore Governor Sir William Denison to put an end to the Maori wars and to offer his own services as mediator.

Dr Robert Willson, the first bishop, arrived in Hobart in May 1844. He had not expected the church debts to be so great or so complicated, and the two men fell out. A long and dreary dispute arose, especially about the St Joseph's property. Neither man had much humour, and not all the goodwill they certainly possessed, or the good offices of Polding, McEncroe, Charles Swanston of the Derwent Bank, the colonial secretary or Rome itself could bring an end to the quarrel, which smouldered for fourteen miserable years. The affair became an idée fixe with Therry, who stayed on for fear that his lay trustees would be victimized or that his debts would not be met in a time of depression. In September 1846, however, he went to Melbourne as parish priest in the place of Father Patrick Geoghegan who had founded the church there. He remained until April 1847.

Therry was at Windsor in New South Wales as parish priest until June 1848 when he returned to live in Van Diemen's Land for six years. His efforts to settle affairs there were unsuccessful and, after a period of adjustment in New South Wales, he went in May 1856 to Balmain where he spent the rest of his life. Mellowed and serene, he continued to be an energetic pastor, watching the growth of the church in whose establishment he had played such a definitive part, the coming of the religious Orders, and the completion of his own church at Balmain and the first St Mary's, generously contributing whenever he could to every new development. He became spiritual director to the Sisters of Charity at St Vincent's, and in 1858 was made archpriest, taking precedence after the vicar-general. In 1859 he was elected a founding fellow of the council of St John's College within the University of Sydney. He had been given or had bought a number of properties which he tried to develop for the provision of more schools and churches for the growing Catholic community. Notable among these were his farms at Bong Bong and Albury, a property which is now the suburb of Lidcombe, and 1500 acres (607 ha) at Pittwater, where he tried unsuccessfully to mine coal.

Simple and unselfish, a firm democrat and a zealous priest, Therry was a man of large notions and considerable achievement. He was an unsophisticated man with no clear ideas of social systems or political reform. Yet his energy and persistence proved a continual source of trouble to those who opposed his ideas of what was right or possible. Of the middle class, gentle, 'pious, zealous, and obstinate', he admired but lacked the education and ability of his more vivid contemporaries. But despite his peculiarities and limitations he undertook many obligations and responsibilities which would in the circumstances have crushed greater men. His enthusiasm and sincerity assure him of a firm place among the founders of the Catholic Church and in the history of civil liberties in Australia. He firmly believed in a distant future for which he built, often regardless of existing conditions. A legend in his own lifetime, he died on 25 May 1864, and his funeral was 'certainly the most numerously attended' ever seen in Sydney to that date. His remains are now in the crypt of St Mary's Cathedral, where the Lady Chapel was erected as his memorial.

J. Eddy, 'Therry, John Joseph (1790–1864)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/therry-john-joseph-2722/text3835, published first in hardcopy 1967, accessed online 17 March 2020.

University of Zambia

  • Corporate body
  • 1965-

The University of Zambia (UNZA) was established by Act of Parliament No. 66 of 1965. The first intake of students took place on 17th March 1966.

St Aloysius' College, Sydney, Australia, 1879-

  • Corporate body
  • 1879-

In 1878 the Catholic Archbishop of Sydney, Dr Roger Bede Vaughan, a Benedictine, met with Fr Joseph Dalton SJ and asked the Jesuits to found a College for boys to meet the needs of the growing Catholic community in Sydney. A property known as St Kilda House on the corner of Cathedral Street and Palmer Street was rented for this purpose. Forty-five students were admitted on 3 February 1879. The number gradually increased during the year to one hundred and fifteen.

In September, 1883 the College moved to a property known as Auburn Villa in Darlinghurst. This building was later demolished to make way for St Margaret's Maternity Hospital. The name "Auburn Villa" was changed on purchase to ‘St Aloysius’, the patron Saint of Youth.

Numbers fluctuated considerably towards the end of the century. On 2 February 1903, the College relocated to its present site on Upper Pitt Street at Milsons Point.

As the College community increased, a new wing was constructed and in 1916 an attractive property known as Wyalla, opposite the College, was purchased. In 1939 some market gardens in Tyneside Avenue, East Willoughby, were acquired to build the College Sports Ground.

The number of students after World War II increased rapidly and after considering various options, the Jesuits re-developed the College, beginning in 1961. Existing buildings were demolished and rebuilt in four stages.

To celebrate its one hundredth birthday, the College embarked on a fifth stage which was opened in 1981. Then, in 1991, the College purchased Milsons Point Primary School and created a Junior School Campus in Burton Street, Milsons Point.

In 1995 the Jesuit community, who had always lived within the College, left the main building for a community house at 38 Jeffrey Street. This allowed the top two floors of the College to be renovated.

Most recently, in 2011, the College opened a new basketball court, swimming pool and gymnasium at Dalton Hall, next to Wyalla. Going forward, Plan Magis plans for further redevelopment of both Upper Pitt St and Wyalla, to meet the growing needs of the College.

St Patrick's College, East Melbourne, 1854-1968

  • Corporate body
  • 1854-1968

The second public (independent) and first Catholic secondary school in Victoria, St Patrick's College was founded in East Melbourne on 5 December 1854. After struggling with financial and scholastic difficulties in its first decade, the college flourished under the administration of the Jesuits from September 1865. Despite low enrolments in both the school and attached seminary at the turn of the century, the college continued to function as an important pillar of the intellectual and spiritual life of Melbourne's Catholic community. Over 5000 students had passed through St Patrick's by 1968, when Archbishop Knox decided it was to close. The decision met with spirited resistance from the school and wider community, but proceeded despite legal wrangling and an attempt to have the site classified by the National Trust. Demolished in the early 1970s, all that remains of the physical school is the bluestone East Tower close to the corner of Lansdowne Street and Cathedral Place. The St Patrick's Old Collegians Association (founded 1911) survives.

Sevenhill, 1851-

  • Corporate body
  • 1851-

Sevenhill, in the Mid North of South Australia, was the birthplace of the Jesuits in Australia after they arrived in Adelaide as chaplains to a group of Austrians that fled Europe to escape political and religious oppression. The immigrants settled near the township of Clare and the Jesuits purchased 100 acres of land in 1851, naming it Sevenhill after the Seven Hill district of Rome.

In addition to serving Catholics as the population grew in the north of South Australia, the Jesuits of Sevenhill planted vines, built a church and opened a college, which became the first Catholic boys' school in the colony and also served as a seminary for the training of priests.

Sevenhill Cellars, St Aloysius' Church and the College building remain today as integral parts of the Jesuit community, with the Sevenhill property regarded as a site of spiritual and historic significance.

From their beginnings at Sevenhill, the Jesuits' presence in Australia expanded to include the eastern colonies, with the Austrians of South Australia joined by the Irish in Melbourne and Sydney. Both groups worked industriously to expand their role in education, missions, parishes and retreat houses. In 1901, an Australian Mission was formed and this became a fully constituted Jesuit Province in 1950.

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