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Seville

45 Name results for Seville

25 results directly related Exclude narrower terms

Barron, Nicholas, 1719-1784, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/902
  • Person
  • 16 January 1719-28 April 1784

Born: 16 January 1719, Fethard, County Tipperary
Entered: 05 January 1741, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained 1748, Seville, Spain
Final Vows: 02 February 1757
Died: 28 April 1784, Cork City

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Had studied at Seville and was Professor of Jesuit Scholastics there for three years.
Letters of his dated Cork and Clonmel, 1751 and 1753 are preserved at Salamanca

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Had studied at Irish College Seville for two years before Ent 05/01/1741 Seville
After First Vows he was sent to complete his Philosophy at Granada and then Seville for Theology where he was Ordained in 1748
1750-1752 Returned to Ireland and began working in Clonmel
1752 Assigned to the Cork residence
After the Suppression he was incardinated - presumably into Cork, where he died in Cork city in April 1784

◆ Fr Joseph McDonnell SJ Past and Present Notes :
16th February 1811 At the advance ages of 73, Father Betagh, PP of the St Michael Rosemary Lane Parish Dublin, Vicar General of the Dublin Archdiocese died. His death was looked upon as almost a national calamity. Shops and businesses were closed on the day of his funeral. His name and qualities were on the lips of everyone. He was an ex-Jesuit, the link between the Old and New Society in Ireland.

Among his many works was the foundation of two schools for boys : one a Classical school in Sall’s Court, the other a Night School in Skinner’s Row. One pupil received particular care - Peter Kenney - as he believed there might be great things to come from him in the future. “I have not long to be with you, but never fear, I’m rearing up a cock that will crow louder and sweeter for yopu than I ever did” he told his parishioners. Peter Kenney was to be “founder” of the restored Society in Ireland.

There were seventeen Jesuits in Ireland at the Suppression : John Ward, Clement Kelly, Edward Keating, John St Leger, Nicholas Barron, John Austin, Peter Berrill, James Moroney, Michael Cawood, Michael Fitzgerald, John Fullam, Paul Power, John Barron, Joseph O’Halloran, James Mulcaile, Richard O’Callaghan and Thomas Betagh. These men believed in the future restoration, and they husbanded their resources and succeeded in handing down to their successors a considerable sum of money, which had been saved by them.

A letter from the Acting General Father Thaddeus Brezozowski, dated St Petersburg 14/06/1806 was addressed to the only two survivors, Betagh and O’Callaghan. He thanked them for their work and their union with those in Russia, and suggested that the restoration was close at hand.

A letter from Nicholas Sewell, dated Stonyhurst 07/07/1809 to Betagh gives details of Irishmen being sent to Sicily for studies : Bartholomew Esmonde, Paul Ferley, Charles Aylmer, Robert St Leger, Edmund Cogan and James Butler. Peter Kenney and Matthew Gahan had preceded them. These were the foundation stones of the Restored Society.

Returning to Ireland, Kenney, Gahan and John Ryan took residence at No3 George’s Hill. Two years later, with the monies saved for them, Kenney bought Clongowes as a College for boys and a House of Studies for Jesuits. From a diary fragment of Aylmer, we learn that Kenney was Superior of the Irish Mission and Prefect of Studies, Aylmer was Minister, Claude Jautard, a survivor of the old Society in France was Spiritual Father, Butler was Professor of Moral and Dogmatic Theology, Ferley was professor of Logic and Metaphysics, Esmonde was Superior of Scholastics and they were joined by St Leger and William Dinan. Gahan was described as a Missioner at Francis St Dublin and Confessor to the Poor Clares and irish Sisters of Charity at Harold’s Cross and Summerhill. Ryan was a Missioner in St Paul’s, Arran Quay, Dublin. Among the Scholastics, Brothers and Masters were : Brothers Fraser, Levins, Connor, Bracken, Sherlock, Moran, Mullen and McGlade.

Trouble was not long coming. Protestants were upset that the Jesuits were in Ireland and sent a petition was sent to Parliament, suggesting that the Vow of Obedience to the Pope meant they could not have an Oath of Allegiance to the King. In addition, the expulsion of Jesuits from all of Europe had been a good thing. Kenney’s influence and diplomatic skills resulted in gaining support from Protestants in the locality of Clongowes, and a counter petition was presented by the Duke of Leinster on behalf of the Jesuits. This moment passed, but anto Jesuit feelings were mounting, such as in the Orange faction, and they managed to get an enquiry into the Jesuits and Peter Kenney and they appeared before the Irish Chief Secretary and Provy Council. Peter Kenney’s persuasive and oratorical skills won the day and the enquiry group said they were satisfied and impressed.

Over the years the Mission grew into a Province with Joseph Lentaigne as first Provincial in 1860. In 1885 the first outward undertaking was the setting up of an Irish Mission to Australia by Lentaigne and William Kelly, and this Mission grew exponentially from very humble beginnings.

Later the performance of the Jesuits in managing UCD with little or no money, and then outperforming what were known as the “Queen’s Colleges” forced the issue of injustice against Catholics in Ireland in the matter of University education. It is William Delaney who headed up the effort and create the National University of Ireland under endowment from the Government.from the Government.

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973

Father Nicholas Barron SJ 1720-1784
Fr Nicholas Barron was one of the handfyl,of Jesuits left in Ireland at the time of the Suppression.

He was born in Fethard County Tipperary on January 16th 1720. It was in Seville that he entered the Society in 1741.

Nine years later he was sent to the Irish Mission, where Clonmel was the field of his labours.

He died in Cork in 1784, which leaves him a record of thirty-four years of active work as a priest, sharing these difficult days of the Penal Laws.

◆ MacErlean Cat Miss HIB SJ 1670-1770

Loose Note :
Nicholas Barron
Those marked with * were working in Dublin when on 07/02/1774 they subscribed their submission to the Brief of Suppression
John Ward was unavoidably absent and subscribed later
Michael Fitzgerald, John St Leger and Paul Power were stationed at Waterford
Nicholas Barron and Joseph Morony were stationed at Cork
Edward Keating was then PP in Wexford

◆ Clongowes Wood College SJ HIB Archive Collection - SC/CLON/142

Nicholas Barron 1720 - 1784
Nicholas Barron, born in Fethard, 16 January 1719, entered the Irish College, Seville, in September 1739. After some fifteen months there he was admitted to the Society in the same city on 5 January 1741. He finished his philosophy at Granada but returned to Seville, I745 to study theology at the College of St Hermengildo where he was ordained priest 1748. Recalled to Ireland, 1750, he exercised his ministry first at Clonmel after which he was assigned to the Cork Residence. At the Suppression of the Society he was incardinated, presumably, in the diocese of Cork as he died in that city towards the end of April 1784.
• At the Franciscan House of Writers, Dun Mhuire, Killiney there is a book formerly the property of N.B. Nics Barron his book bought in Seville the 26 Jan 1748.Proce 6 dollars for this and the other tome Ihs". On the flyleaf Idelphonsus de Flores S.J., “De Inclyto Agone martyrii” (Cologne 1735).

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
BARON NICHOLAS, was born at Fethard, Munster, on the 16th of January, 1720, and entered the Society in the Province of Seville, on the 5th of January, 1741. Nine years later he was sent to the Irish Mission, where Clonmel was the field of his labours for some time. He survived the suppression of the Society and died at Cork.*

  • A pardonable Inattention to the keeping of Records and Registers arose in turbulent times, when the Discovery might prove fatal to the Possessor, or the Parties therein mentioned; but the terror of Penal Statutes long survived their force and operation, and unfortunately the habit of neglect became generally inveterate. Hence the importance of preserving fragments and traditions, lest they perish.

Bathe, John, 1612-1649, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/910
  • Person
  • 23 June 1612-11 September 1649

Born: 23 June 1612, Drogheda, County Louth
Entered: 17 May 1639, Mechelen, Belgium (BELG)
Ordained: 1637, Seville, Spain - pre Entry
Died: 11 September 1649, Drogheda, County Louth - described as Martyr

Son of Christopher Bathe and Catherine Warine
Had studied Humanities at Drogheda under Fr William Macahia for 2.5 years, and then by the Jesuits for half a year
1630 Studied 3 years Philosophy at St Hermenegildo's in Seville under Fr di Gillandi SJ, and then 4 years Theology with the Jesuits.
Ordained in Seville
1638 has been received by the Provincial Fr Robert Nugent and Entered at Mechelen.
Confessor for 1 year at Drogheda
Martyred with his brother Thomas and others, a secular priest, in Drogheda on 16 September 1649 - more likely 11 September 1649 as he was martyred the day after the “storm of Drogheda” which took place on 10 September 1649. However, that massacre lasted 5 days.

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Son of Christopher (Merchant and Mayor of Drogheda) and Catherine née Warine
He was shot odiio fidei in Drogheda with his brother, a secular Priest
Early education in Humanities was under William Macahire at Drogheda, then for a year and a half with the Jesuits, and on to St Hermenigildo’s English College Seville under Francis Gillando SJ, and was Ordained there. He then came to Drogheda as a Confessor, and was admitted to the Society by the Mission Superior, Robert Nugent, in Dublin 1638, beginning his Noviceship at Mechelen 17 May 1639.
He was a Missioner in Drogheda, where the Jesuits had long and zealously laboured, when the city was sacked by Cromwell’s rebel forces, and with his brother, a priest, was shot by the soldiers in the Market Place 16/08/1649 (cf Tanner’s “Lives of the Jesuit Martyrs”, p 138 seq; Mercure Verdier’s “Report of the Irish Mission 1641-1650, in the Archives of the English College in Rome, a copy of which is at the “Roman Transcripts” Library, Public record Office, London)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Son of Christopher Bathe, Alderman of Drogheda and Catherine née Warren
Received his early education from William Meagher, a secular priest and later at the Jesuits' school in Drogheda.
1630 After First Vows he was sent for studies to Irish College Seville, and then studied Philosophy and Theology at San Hermenegildo's Seville for seven years, being Ordained in 1637, following which he returned to Ireland and was stationed at Drogheda.
In 1638 he applied to Fr Robert Nugent to enter the Society and then Ent at Mechelen on 17 May 1639
1641-1649 Returned to Ireland and Drogheda where he worked for eight years
1649 On the fall of Drogheda to Cromwell, he and his brother Thomas were captured, examined and then tied to stakes in the market-place and blown-up with gun-powder. They died on 11/09/1649 and their names are on the list of martyrs whose cause has been submitted to the Holy See

◆ Royal Irish Academy : Dictionary of Irish Biography, Cambridge University Press online :
Bathe (Bath), John
by Robert Armstrong

Bathe (Bath), John (1612–49), Jesuit priest, was born in Drogheda on 23 June 1612, the son of Alderman Christopher Bathe, merchant, and perhaps at some time mayor, of Drogheda, and his wife, Catherine Warine; his uncle, Robert Bathe, was a Jesuit priest in the town. He had at least one brother, Thomas, later a secular priest. He studied humanities with the Jesuits in Drogheda and, probably in 1630, was admitted to the Irish College in Seville, run by the Society of Jesus, whence he studied at the Jesuit College of St Hermenegild in the city. He was ordained a priest in Spain, perhaps in 1635, and then returned to Drogheda for a year before being admitted to the Society of Jesus in 1638 in Dublin by Father Robert Nugent. He was sent for his novitiate to Mechlin in the Spanish Netherlands, arriving there on 17 May 1639. By 1641 he had returned to Drogheda, where he and his brother may have remained throughout the 1640s, until the town's capture by Oliver Cromwell (qv) on 11 September 1649. The following day (and not, as often claimed, 16 August) he and his brother Thomas were shot by Cromwellian soldiers.

Henry Foley, Records of the English province of the Society of Jesus (1882), vii, 41; G. Rice, ‘The five martyrs of Drogheda’, Ríocht na Midhe, ix (1997), 102–27

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973

Father John Bathe 1610-1649
John Bathe was the son of Christopher Bathe, Mayor of Drogheda, in the ealy seventeenth century. He was educated at Seville in Spain, where he was ordained priest in 1630.

Returning to Ireland in 1638, he spent a year working as a priest in Drogheda, and then applied to Fr Robert Nugent for admission to the Society.

His noviceship in Mechelen completed, he then spent the rest of his life as a Jesuit in Drogheda. He lost his life during the sack of Drogheda by the Cromwellians. The following is a contemporary account of his martyrdom :

“The following day (August 16th) when the soldiers were searching among the ruins of the city, they discovered one of our Fathers, named John Bathe, with his brother, a secular priest. Suspecting they were religious, they examined them, and finding that they were priests, and moreover one of them a Jesuit, they led them off in triumph, and accompanied by a tumultuous crowd, conducted them to the market place, and there, as if they were at length extinguishing the Catholic faith and our Society, they tied them both to stakes fixed in trhe ground, and pierced their bodies with shot, until they died”.

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
BATH, JOHN. This Father was living in Drogheda, when the Town was stormed by the Cromwellian Forces. His house was given up to plunder, and the good Jesuit, with his Brother, a worthy Secular Clergyman, was conducted into the Market place, and both were deliberately shot by the Soldiers on the 10th of August, 1649. See Mat. Tanner’s Lives, pp. 138-9.

Bray, Francis, 1584-1624, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/949
  • Person
  • 04 October 1584-16 October 1624

Born: 04 October 1584, Clonmel, County Tipperary
Entered: 18 July 1614, St Andrea, Rome, Italy - Romanae Province (ROM)
Ordained: 10 April 1611 Salamanca, Spain - pre Entry
Died: 16 October 1624, At Sea off the Belgian Coast - Flanders Province (FLAN)

Had studied 5 years Humanities; 2 years Philosophy and 2 years Theology on entry (Ord 10 April 1611); then studied 2 years Theology in the Society
1617 at Rome
1622 at Bourges College for preaching and Mission
1624 Killed in naval battle

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
1617 Appears to have been in Rome (Irish Ecclesiastical Record, August 1874)
Had been stationed at Cork and Rome.
He was a Navy Chaplain; A man of great piety and courage;
Killed by a canon ball in a naval battle between the Spaniards and the Dutch; He was “the soul of the fight”, and there Spaniards, when he was shot, blew up the ship.
(cf An Account of his heroic death in “Imago Primi Saeculi” and “Historica Societatis”)
Catalogue BELG (FLAN) reports his death in “Missione Navali”
Cordara calls him “Strenuus in paucis et praelii quasi fax atque anima”.

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Son John and Ann, née Whyte
Had already studied at the Irish College Salamanca where he was Ordained 1611 before Ent 18 July 1614 Rome.
1616-1618 After First Vows he completed studies at Naples, Italy
1618-1621 Sent to Ireland and to Clonmel to work with Nicholas Leynach (or Cork with Edward Cleere?), but only spent three years there due to ill health
1621-1623 Stationed at Antwerp, he served as a military Chaplain
1623 Richard Conway (Rector of Seville) asked for him to be sent to Seville. The General agreed but asked that he be detained at Flanders until he should have a travelling companion as information had been received that Bray had discussed affairs of state with the Duke of Buckingham in England on his way from Ireland to Flanders. Bray was also advised by the General to decline respectfully any request from O'Neill to conduct political business. By Summer 1624 Bray had not yet set out for Spain and in the event never returned there. He was killed in a naval engagement between the Dutch and Spanish off the Belgian coast in October, 1624.
According to the eulogy of his career, circulated in the Flanders Province after his death, Francis Bray was reckoned as eminently fitted for his work as a chaplain as he had a ready mastery of Irish, English, French, Flemish, Spanish and Italian, all of which languages were spoken by the different nationalities in the Spanish army. To his gift of tongues he joined a remarkable zeal for souls and was able to bring the consolations of religion even to the most dissolute of the soldiers. During his three years at Antwerp he received some 600 Protestants into the church.

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973

Father Francis Bray 1584-1624
Fr Francis Bray was born in Clonmel on October 4th 1584, the son of John Bray and Anne White. Already a priest, he entered the Society at Rome in 1614.

He was sent to Antwerp, where he became Chaplain to the soldiers who were pouring into the Low Countries on the expiration of the truce between Spain and Holland, April 19th 1621. He received a special message of congratulations for the General Fr Mutius Vitelleschi on the marvellous success of his ministry with the troops. Here he came in contact with the Irish Brigade under Owen Roe O’Neill, and became a fast friend of the future Irish Leader. He received an offer for the foundation of a Jesuit College in Ireland.

In 1624 he became Naval Chaplain to the Spanish Fleet. As a result of a naval engagement the Spanish Fleet got tied up in the “Roads of the Downs” between Dover and Ramsgate. Fr Bray made valiant attempts to get help, going twice to London and once to Brussels. Finally on October 15th, the Dutch attacked. Fr Bray was on the flagship. He held aloft the crucifix, crying “It is for King and the Faith”. He rushed to the assistance of the Captain who had been wounded, and both fell dead, killed by the same cannon-ball.

Briones, Thomas, 1582-1645, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/955
  • Person
  • 1582-12 February 1645

Born: 1582, Jenkinstown, County Kilkenny
Entered: 21 January 1605, St Andrea, Rome, Italy - Romanae Province (ROM)
Final vows: 22 May 1622
Died: 12 February 1645, Irish College, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

Alias Bryan

“Thomas O’Brien - see Briones”
Studied 2 years Philosophy and 2 years Theology
1609 was at Ingolstadt (Bavaria) further studies after 4th year Theology; subsequently Superior of Seminary for 4 years (dates unclear)
1609-1610 sent to Ireland with Daton and R Comeford
1617 was in CAST Province
1619 Master of Irish students at College of Salamanca
1625 College of Montforte (CAST)
1628 Rector of Irish College at Compostella
1633 Rector of Irish College at Seville
1639 at Malaga College
Was Master of Novices at some stage

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
1613-1645 Rector of Salamanca and Seville; Writer
1609 Appears in Ireland
Because of the confusion over his aliases (above) he appears as two persons in Foley’s Collectanea : Thomas Brian (O’Bryan) and Thomas Brion (Briones)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Son of Thomas and Joanna née Hoyne
He began his studies at Salamanca in 1600 before Ent 21 January 1605 Rome
After First Vows he resumed studies at the Roman College, and then a final year at Ingolstadt.
1609-1613 Sent to Ireland and worked in the Kilkenny region
1614-1622 Recalled to Spain as Rector of Salamanca
1622-1626 Rector at Santiago
1626-1627 Rector of Salamanca again
1627 Went to Madrid as Procurator of the Irish Mission and Irish Colleges on the Iberian Peninsula
1631-1637 He changed Province from CAST to BAE and immediately appointed Rector at the Irish College Seville
1637-1641 Operarius at the Marchena Residence
1641 Reappointed as Rector of Seville in response to the reiterated demands of the students who resented the government of the College of Spaniards.
1644 Forced by illness and blindness to retire from Rectorship, but remained there as Spiritual Father to Seminarians until his death 12 February 1645.

◆ Royal Irish Academy : Dictionary of Irish Biography, Cambridge University Press online :
Note from Richard Lynch (1611-1647) Entry
Lynch was appointed Rector of the Irish College Seville on 1 February 1644, replacing Father Thomas Briones

Butler, Thomas Bernard, 1640-1705, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/982
  • Person
  • 09 July 1640-06 March 1705

Born: 09 July 1640, Baramount, County Kilkenny
Entered: 12 May 1656, Villarejo, Spain - Toletanae Province (TOLE)
Ordained: c 1665, Alcalá de Henares, Spain
Final Vows: 15 August 1673
Died: 06 March 1705, Professed House, Madrid, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

Brother of the Lord of Galway
Writer and a man of great energy.
Got a procurator General established for Irish College at Madrid

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
1673-1687 Rector Irish College Seville succeeding Ignatius Lombard
Writer; A man of great energy; Got a procurator for Irish Colleges established at Madrid

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Educated at College of Luis Gonzaga at Ocaña before Ent 12 May 1656 Villarejo
After First Vows (had made Noviceship at Villarejo and Madrid) he studied at Huete, Cuenca and Alcalá completing a “Grand Act” and being Ordained c 1665
1665-1673 On completing studies and formation he was sent to the Imperial College at Madrid
1673-1687 Transcribed from TOLE to BAE and appointed Rector of Irish College Seville. His was the last Irish Rectorship, but proved to be the longest and most successful. His popularity with the students was unbounded and the College prospered spiritually and materially under his rule.
He had always hoped to go to Ireland, initially after Ordination. In 1675, Father Stephen Rice, Superior of the Mission, asked the General to send him to Ireland, and in particular to Kilkenny, but at the time it was impossible to replace him at Seville. Two years after he retired from Seville, the General promised he should be sent back to Ireland to meet the wishes of many people, however the uncertain state of the country prevented his return.
1687 until his death he was Prefect of the church at the Professed House, Madrid, where he conducted a Sodality for Noblemen. He died at Madrid 6 March, 1705

Cavell, Peter, d 1728, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2296
  • Person
  • d 14 April 1728

Entered : pre 1728 - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Died: 14 April 1728, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

In Old/15 (1) and CATSJ A-H

Cavell, Thomas, d 1718, Jesuit priest novice

  • IE IJA J/2297
  • Person
  • d 17 August 1718

Entered: 1718 - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Died: 17 August 1718, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

In Old/15 (1) and CATSJ A-H and Chronological Catalogue Sheet

Cawood, Michael, 1707-1772, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1038
  • Person
  • 23 June 1707-04 June 1772

Born: 23 June 1707, Dublin
Entered: 28 January 1726, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 1737, Granada, Spain
Final Vows: 17 March 1742
Died: 04 June 1772, Dublin Residence

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Rector at Salamanca
1738 Sent to Ireland from Seville
1786 He is found in a list of Dublin Priests by Battersby.
He was stationed in Dublin for the rest of his life.
(Curiously all his dates are the same as those of Simon Shee in the HIB Catalogues of 1752 and 1755).
His name is found in many old Spanish books.

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Son of a Protestant father who converted later
After First Vows he made all his studies at Granada and was Ordained by 1737
1738 Sent to Ireland and to the Dublin Residence, serving as a Curate at St Mary’s Lane Chapel.
1755 Superior of Dublin Residence and remained there till his death 04 June 1772
From time to time he ministered to the Graham family Ballycooge House, near Arklow. He died in Dublin 04 June 1772, and was buried in the Old Abbey cemetery, Arklow, in the tomb of the Graham family.

◆ Clongowes Wood College SJ HIB Archive Collection - SC/CLON/142
Michael Cawood 1707-1787
Michael Cawood, son of a Protestant father who was later received into the Church, was born in Dublin 23 June 1707 and received into the Society at Seville, 28 January 1726. He made all his ecclesiastical studies at Granada and was ordained priest by 1737. Recalled to Dublin in 1738 he was assigned to the Dublin Residence and served as curate at Mary's Lane, He was superior of the Residence for some time after 1760. From time to time he exercised his ministry at Ballycooge House, Arklow, seat of the Graham family. He died at Dublin 4 June 1772 and was buried at the Old Abbey cemetery, Arklow in the tomb of the Graham family.

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
CAWOOD, MICHAEL, of Leinster, was born in 1708; joined the Order at Seville on the 28th of January, 1726, and came to the Irish Mission twelve years later. He took his solemn Vows on St. Patrick s Day Day, 1742. For several years he assisted a Parish Priest in Dublin; but further information I have been unable to procure.

◆ Fr Joseph McDonnell SJ Past and Present Notes :
16th February 1811 At the advance ages of 73, Father Betagh, PP of the St Michael Rosemary Lane Parish Dublin, Vicar General of the Dublin Archdiocese died. His death was looked upon as almost a national calamity. Shops and businesses were closed on the day of his funeral. His name and qualities were on the lips of everyone. He was an ex-Jesuit, the link between the Old and New Society in Ireland.

Among his many works was the foundation of two schools for boys : one a Classical school in Sall’s Court, the other a Night School in Skinner’s Row. One pupil received particular care - Peter Kenney - as he believed there might be great things to come from him in the future. “I have not long to be with you, but never fear, I’m rearing up a cock that will crow louder and sweeter for yopu than I ever did” he told his parishioners. Peter Kenney was to be “founder” of the restored Society in Ireland.

There were seventeen Jesuits in Ireland at the Suppression : John Ward, Clement Kelly, Edward Keating, John St Leger, Nicholas Barron, John Austin, Peter Berrill, James Moroney, Michael Cawood, Michael Fitzgerald, John Fullam, Paul Power, John Barron, Joseph O’Halloran, James Mulcaile, Richard O’Callaghan and Thomas Betagh. These men believed in the future restoration, and they husbanded their resources and succeeded in handing down to their successors a considerable sum of money, which had been saved by them.

A letter from the Acting General Father Thaddeus Brezozowski, dated St Petersburg 14/06/1806 was addressed to the only two survivors, Betagh and O’Callaghan. He thanked them for their work and their union with those in Russia, and suggested that the restoration was close at hand.

A letter from Nicholas Sewell, dated Stonyhurst 07/07/1809 to Betagh gives details of Irishmen being sent to Sicily for studies : Bartholomew Esmonde, Paul Ferley, Charles Aylmer, Robert St Leger, Edmund Cogan and James Butler. Peter Kenney and Matthew Gahan had preceded them. These were the foundation stones of the Restored Society.

Returning to Ireland, Kenney, Gahan and John Ryan took residence at No3 George’s Hill. Two years later, with the monies saved for them, Kenney bought Clongowes as a College for boys and a House of Studies for Jesuits. From a diary fragment of Aylmer, we learn that Kenney was Superior of the Irish Mission and Prefect of Studies, Aylmer was Minister, Claude Jautard, a survivor of the old Society in France was Spiritual Father, Butler was Professor of Moral and Dogmatic Theology, Ferley was professor of Logic and Metaphysics, Esmonde was Superior of Scholastics and they were joined by St Leger and William Dinan. Gahan was described as a Missioner at Francis St Dublin and Confessor to the Poor Clares and irish Sisters of Charity at Harold’s Cross and Summerhill. Ryan was a Missioner in St Paul’s, Arran Quay, Dublin. Among the Scholastics, Brothers and Masters were : Brothers Fraser, Levins, Connor, Bracken, Sherlock, Moran, Mullen and McGlade.

Trouble was not long coming. Protestants were upset that the Jesuits were in Ireland and sent a petition was sent to Parliament, suggesting that the Vow of Obedience to the Pope meant they could not have an Oath of Allegiance to the King. In addition, the expulsion of Jesuits from all of Europe had been a good thing. Kenney’s influence and diplomatic skills resulted in gaining support from Protestants in the locality of Clongowes, and a counter petition was presented by the Duke of Leinster on behalf of the Jesuits. This moment passed, but anto Jesuit feelings were mounting, such as in the Orange faction, and they managed to get an enquiry into the Jesuits and Peter Kenney and they appeared before the Irish Chief Secretary and Provy Council. Peter Kenney’s persuasive and oratorical skills won the day and the enquiry group said they were satisfied and impressed.

Over the years the Mission grew into a Province with Joseph Lentaigne as first Provincial in 1860. In 1885 the first outward undertaking was the setting up of an Irish Mission to Australia by Lentaigne and William Kelly, and this Mission grew exponentially from very humble beginnings.

Later the performance of the Jesuits in managing UCD with little or no money, and then outperforming what were known as the “Queen’s Colleges” forced the issue of injustice against Catholics in Ireland in the matter of University education. It is William Delaney who headed up the effort and create the National University of Ireland under endowment from the Government.from the Government.

Cluaro, James, 1609-1637, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2299
  • Person
  • 1609-05 December 1637

Born: 1609, Galway
Entered: 09 August 1631, Seville, Spain - Baetica Province (BAE)
Ordained: 1636, Seville, Spain
Died: 05 December 1637, Galway Residence

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ General Notes
James Clune
DOB 1609 Galway; Ent 08 August 1631 Seville; Ord 1636 Seville; RIP 1638 Galway Residence
Studied at Santiago and Sevillle before he Ent at Seville 08 August 1631

After First Vows he returned to Theology at the College of San Hermenegildo Seville and was Ordained April 1636
1637 Sent to Ireland and probably sent to the Galway Residence. His career was short and he died sometime in 1638

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Two Entries

James Cluarus and James Clancy (corrected in pencil to Cluarus)
DOB Connaught; Ent 1627 or 08 August 1631 Spain (Dr W McDonald’s, of Salamanca, letter to Hogan) ad in pencil “recte 09 August 1631”

In Old/15 (1), Old/16 and Old/17
In CATSJ A-H

Conway, John, 1597-1642, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1094
  • Person
  • 1597-10 August 1642

Born: 1597, Cashel, County Tipperary
Entered: 1620, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 1628, Seville, Spain
Died: 10 August 1642, Cashel, County Tipperary

1625 at Salamanca
1625 at Seville 2nd year Theology
1628 a native of Cashel is Minister and Operarius or Irish College Seville
John Conway of Ross in Villagarcía 1301, 1617, 1619
John Conbeus (no 2) of Ross DOB 1598, at Salamanca 1621
John Conbeus of Ross in College of Leon 1628
1637 Catalogue at ARSI proficient in letters, judgement, experience and prudence mediocre
also DOB 1600 Cashel; Ent 1620; 1625 at Seville Theology; 13628 at Seville Minister and Operarius
also DOB 1598 Ross Diocese; Ent 1617; 1619 at Villagarcía; 1625 at Salamanca
Much confusion of John Conways here - there are 4 : 3 priests and 1 brother the confusions is with the priests

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
He is described as a religious hardworking priest; Came to Ireland 1630 (cf Foley’s Collectanea)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Son of Peter and Elizabeth née Saule
Had begun studies at Salamanca 04 June 1620 before Ent 1620 Seville
After First Vows he was sent for studies to San Hermegildo in Seville and was Ordained there 1628
1628-1630 Sent as Minister to Irish College Seville
1630 Sent to Ireland and Cashel where he died 10 August 1642. He was described by the Mission Superior as “a man of deep piety and a useful missioner”

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
CONWAY, JOHN. This Professed Father died at Cashell, on the 10th of August,1642, “Vir vere Religiosus et in vinea hac utilis operarius”, as his Superior, F. Robert Nugent, writes of him, 10th of October that year.

Conway, Richard, 1572-1626, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1096
  • Person
  • 1572-01 December 1626

Born: 1572, New Ross, County Wexford
Entered: 22 July 1592, Coimbra, Portugal - Lusitaniae province (LUS)
Ordained: 1600, Salamanca, Spain
Professed: 06 January 1613
Died: 01 December 1626, Irish College, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

Studied 3 years Arts and 2 of Theology at Coimbra before Entry
1603 At Salamanca has 3 years Philosophy and 4 years Theology and is a Confessor
1612 in Compostella where he wrote an account of O’Devaney’s in Ireland martyrdom from an eyewitness
1614 At Madrid College
1617 In Province of Castellanae
1622 Rector of Irish College Seville
1624 At Madrid, Prefect of College

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronolgica”:
He was a Rector and a great promoter of the Irish Colleges in Spain; Writer;
He was zealous and pious.
He was tied to a tree by robbers and miraculously freed by the Blessed Virgin Mary and his Angel Guardian (cf Foley’s Collectanea)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ:
Son of Patrick and his wife née White
Studied Humanities at Irish College Lisbon 1589/1590 before Ent 22 July 1592 at Coimbra
After First Vows was sent to Spain for studies, to Montforte for Philosophy and Royal College Salamanca for Theology and was Ordained there 1600.
From the completion of his studies until the end of his life he was destined to play an important part in the organisation and support of the Irish Colleges of Salamanca, Santiago, and Seville.
1600-1608 At Salamanca as Spiritual Father but frequently filled in as vice-Rector during the many absences of Thomas White, who was constantly travelling seeking alms for the College,
1608-1613 Rector Irish College Salamanca
1613-1618 Appointed Rector of Irish College Santiago
1619-1622 First Rector of new Irish College Seville - lent to BAE
1622-1625 Freed from Seville to organise the finances of the Irish Colleges from the procurator's office at Madrid.
1625 Appointed Rector of Seville again and died in Office 01 December 1626
Richard Conway, it can ·be justly claimed, was one of the most eminent of Irish Churchmen of the seventeenth century. Under his prudent guidance for over a quarter of a century the three Irish Colleges under the control of the Jesuits in Spain sent forth to the Mission in their home country an army of splendidly trained priests prepared with knowledge and animated by zeal to maintain the Catholic faith in all its purity amongst their countrymen.

◆ Royal Irish Academy : Dictionary of Irish Biography, Cambridge University Press online :
Conway, Richard
by Terry Clavin

Conway, Richard (1572–1626), Jesuit, was born in New Ross, Co. Tipperary, son of Patrick Conway; nothing is known of his mother. In 1590 he travelled to Lisbon and studied humanities at the Irish college there. On 22 July 1592 he was received into the Jesuit noviciate at Coimbra. After completing his noviceship at Coimbra, he studied philosophy at Monterey in Spain (1595–8) and theology at Salamanca. Highly regarded by his superiors, he was ordained in 1600 at Salamanca and was preacher and confessor there (1600–08). From 1605 he was often acting rector of the college, as the rectors were frequently absent raising funds. Conway also went on fund-raising missions for the college and became close to influential figures at the royal court and elsewhere. His skill at tapping wealthy benefactors for money facilitated his appointment as rector of the Irish college at Salamanca on 6 May 1608.

By 1608 Conway had been made procurator of the Irish mission. This was an important but burdensome office, which involved variously arranging correspondence between the Jesuits in Ireland and Rome, providing travel expenses for Jesuit novices studying abroad, advising Irish exiles who went to Spain, and promoting the interests of the Irish seminaries at the royal court in Madrid. Further, in the years following the conclusion of the Nine Years War in Ireland in 1603, large numbers of Irish refugees began arriving in Spain, and Conway was heavily involved in providing for them. As a result of these administrative responsibilities, from 1608 he resided for part of each year at Madrid.

Despite his heavy workload, Conway kept in contact with his former pupils who had joined the Irish mission. Their dispatches from Ireland had left him keenly aware of the dangers that faced the catholic clergy there. In 1611 he began writing a book outlining the persecution suffered by Irish catholics at the hands of English protestants. However, his superiors dissuaded him from completing this work, for fear that it would anger the English government.

In 1611–13 he was heavily involved in negotiating the transfer to the Irish Jesuits of the Irish college at Salamanca, which had previously taught both the laity and candidates for the priesthood. The Jesuits intended to use the college exclusively to train priests, but this was strongly opposed by the existing students. In July 1613 Conway took possession of the college and informed all students there that they would be expected to become priests. Many students refused to accept this and were expelled. In 1614 the powerful exiled Irish catholic nobleman Domhnall O'Sullivan Beare (qv) protested at Conway's conduct, but his superiors stood by his actions and he remained rector at Salamanca until 1618. As before, he proved hugely successful at raising funds to maintain the college, which was soon able to support twenty-five students.

In 1618 he resigned his rectorship and moved to Madrid, where he focused on raising money for the Irish colleges in Spain and for the Jesuit mission in Ireland. However, in 1619 he was made rector of the Irish college at Seville. The college was in a miserable condition, but his ability to raise money brought about a rapid improvement. Such was his success that complaints were directed against him for depriving other Jesuit houses in the city of charity. In late 1623 he was replaced as rector in Seville and went to Madrid to resume his role as procurator. He returned to Seville to become rector again in late 1625 and died there 1 December 1626.

John McErlean, ‘Richard Conway S.J.’, Irish Monthly, no. 51 (1923); Francis Finegan, ‘Irish rectors at Seville, 1619–1687’, IER, 5th ser., cvi (July–Dec. 1966), 45–63

◆ James B Stephenson SJ The Irish Jesuits Vol 1 1962

FR RICHARD CONWAY, SJ 1573-1626
(Abbreviated from the account published by Fr. John Mac Erlean, S.J. in the IRISH MONTHLY, 1923-24)

The preservation of the Catholic Faith in Ireland during three centuries of brutal persecution was largely due to the colleges and seminaries which patriotic Catholic Irishmen founded in several countries of Europe for the instruction of Irish youths and the education of Irish priests. Such signal service to the cause of God and Fatherland deserves to be remembered with everlasting gratitude. Their work was crowned with success. The most deadly efforts of the persecutors were gloriously defeated. One strange effect, however, of the long continuance of the persecution has been that the lives and works of those who commenced and carried on its triumphal resistance have been forgotten by those who even now are enjoying the fruits of their self-denying labours. To rescue their memory from oblivion is a pious and patriotic task.

Three Irish Jesuits stand out prominently as founders of Irish colleges in the Spanish peninsula: Fr John Howling, of Wexford, founder of the Irish College of Lisbon in 1590; Fr Thomas White, of Clonmel, founder of the Irish College of Salamanca in 1592; and Fr Richard Conway, of New Ross, who with Fr, Thomas White founded the Irish College of Santiago de Compostella in 1613, and that of Seville in 1619. Sketches of the careers of Fr. Flowling and Fr White were published by the late Fr. Edmund Hogan, S.J. in his Distinguished Irishmen of the Sixteenth Century (London, 1094). Fr. Conway is mentioned frequently by the Rev, William McDonald, then Rector of the Irish College of Salamanca, in his articles entitled Irish Colleges Since the Reformation, published in the Irish Ecclesiastical Record in 1873, but a consecutive account of his career is well worth attempting for the light it throws upon the ecclesiastical history of the times.

The Conways were one of the leading families of New Ross in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The head of the family in the middle of the sixteenth century was Patrick Conway, who died in 1587, He married a Miss White, by whom he had two sons, George and Richard. Richard, the future Jesuit, was born at New Ross in 1572 or 1573. There is not much to record of his childhood or early years. He left Ireland for Spain when about sixteen or seventeen years of age, but, young as he was when he left his native land, he did not leave without personal experience of England's methods in Ireland, for his mother's house was raided on a forged warrant “to seize upon chalices, money and other things ... in respect of priests and Jesuits that were there harboured to say Masses”. In a note written in 1612 he sets forth clearly the reasons that forced him to seek abroad the education denied him at home. He says: “The greatest injury the English heretics have done, and one which has had the most serious consequences, has been the prohibition of all Catholic schools in our nation, naturally so inclined to learning, except an odd infant school in the principal cities and towns where reading, writing, and a little grammar are taught. Their object was to sink our people to degradation, or fill the universities of England with the children of those who had any means to educate them, where they might become more dependent on heretics and contaminated with their errors. They have also taken singular care that all children be taught English, and chastise them if they hear then speak their own native language. But all the efforts of these crafty heretics do not produce the desired effect. The natives not only did not go to England, but preferred rather to remain in ignorance than run the risk of their faith and religion by doing so, or they went secretly and quietly to many foreign parts, but particularly to Spain”.

It was in the year 1590, seemingly, that Richard Conway landed at Lisbon. There he met many other Irish students, who had come abroad for the same purpose, and whose interests and welfare were the object of the solicitous care of the Wexford Jesuit, Fr John Howling, then resident at the Jesuit house of S Roque, in that city. Fr Howling was at that very time engaged in founding a college for these Irish students, which was opened soon after'. During the next two years, 1590-1592, Richard Conway remained in the Irish College, studying humanities or classics. Then, as a Spanish writer says, “feeling that the end he had in view, the preservation of the faith and the conversion of heretics in Ireland, could be attained with greater security and perfection in a Religious Order, he offered himself to the Society of Jesus, and was received into it”. He entered the Novitiate of Coimbra on July 22nd, 1592.

After completing his two years! noviceship at Coimbra, and taking his vows as. a scholastic on August 20th, 15941, he was sent in the following year to the College of Monterrey in Spain, where he devoted himself to the study of philosophy for the next three years, 1595-1598, During this time he won the highest praise from the authorities of the College for his intellectual gifts, his prudence and skill in the management of affairs, and his progress in philosophy. He is described as being of gentle disposition, and even at this early date is said to be one who would be an excellent labourer in the vine yard of the Lord, and be suited for the office of Superior of his nation.

From Monterrey he passed, in 1598, to the Royal College of Salamanca, where he studied theology for the next four years, 1598-1562, though not without interruption, for, as our Spanish authority says: “The Superiors recognising his remarkable talent for looking after those of his nation, and the holy zeal that he had for their welfare, took him from his studies before he had completed them to employ him in this work, whereupon he began to aid the Irish seminaries”. The Irish Seminary, or College of Salamanca, founded by Fr Thomas White, had been put under the care of the Society of Jesus by King Philip, in 1592, in answer to a petition presented by the Irish gentlemen at the Spanish Court. From 1592 onwards, Fr White and Fr James Archer were in charge of it. As they were often absent on missionary labours, or seeking aims for the support of the College, the duty of loo!:ing after the Irish students devolved on Fr Richard Conway, especially after his ordination as priest in 1600, and though he had still to do two years of his theological course, he acted from time to time as Vice-Rector.

Thus began Fr Conway's work on behalf of the Irish seminaries. He was stationed at Salamanca as preacher and confessor from 1600 to 1608, and often acted as Vice-Rector, he had full charge of the Seminary of Salamanca as Rector from 1608 to 1613, then of that of Santiago, 1613-1618. In 1619 he became Rector of the newly-founded Irish College of Seville, a position he held until 1622, and to which he was again appointed in 1625, and which he continued to hold till his death in 1626. Nor did this exhaust his labours. During these same years he acted as Prefect of all the Irish colleges in Spain, and as Procurator of the Irish Mission, in which capacity he was called to attend to the financial and other affairs of the Irish Mission in countries so far apart as Rome, Germany, Spain, Flanders, France, and Ireland,

When first he took up these multifarious duties it was a time of extraordinary difficulty. The victory of the English arms in Ireland in 1603 not only cut off all hope of receiving alms from Ireland, such as Fr James Archer had collected for the colleges in 1596, but threw upon the shores of Spain in the succeeding years destitute crowds of Irish men, women, and children, fleeing in ever-increasing numbers from the cruelty of the English, while continuing the main work of providing for the necessities of the colleges, Fr Conway strove hard to relieve the distress of these helpless refugees. Of the religious and scholastic fervour of the Irish Seminary of Salamanca in these years the Annual Letters of the Province of Castile for the year 1604 bear : striking testimony. There were then four Jesuits living in the College, filling the offices of Rector, Confessor, Professor, and Spiritual Director respectively. The students numbered twenty-two, of whom eight were studying theology and four philosophy. Eight students had entered the Society of Jesus, and four had entered other Religious Orders. All students made a week's retreat, some even made two weeks, and all were assiduous in religious practices. The Bishop, the Magister Scholae, and other Doctors testified in laudatory terns to the doctrine, conduct, and training of the students.

But, meanwhile, those to whom was due whatever provision for Irish students existed were subject to a new and unexpected trial. The administration of the Irish Colleges was bitterly and unreasonably assailed. These institutions were so necessary, and the good they were doing for the preservation of the faith in Ireland was so striking, that some well-meaning persons forgot, no doubt unconsciously, the ceaseless efforts required to procure for them the limited and uncertain resources which they possessed; but the bitterest critics were those who had done nothing towards the founding of the Colleges, and had never contributed a penny towards their support. The history of the two centuries that followed offers many examples of similar attacks on the administration of the Irish Colleges in Spain and Rome. The motives in the main were provincial animosities, suspicions of partiality, and the interference of ill affected outsiders, who for their own ends fomented dissensions and encouraged insubordination within the college walls.

This agitation was begun in 1602, when a memorial against the continuance of the Irish Fathers of the Society af Jesus in control of the Seminary of Salamanca, drawn up in the names of O'Donnell and O'Neill, was presented to King Philip III, and demanded: (1.) that half the students of the Seminary should be selected from Ulster and Connaught; (2) that Fr Thomas White should be removed from the rectorship as being one who could not be trusted to carry out such a selection, or who would ill-treat those students whom he would be forced to receive; and (3) that a Spaniard, who would see to the punctual execution of this decree, should be appointed Rector.

The plot was skilfully conceived and vigorously carried out. The malcontents dared not go so far as to demand that the seminaries should be handed over to themselves, but yet they hoped by appealing to Spanish prejudices to oust the Irish Jesuits. The controversy continued for more than two years, memorials and replies alternating. In defence of the Irish Jesuits, the Irish nobles and gentlemen residing in Valladolid refuted the accusations and defended the existing administration; the Provincial of Castile denied that there was any preference against Northern students; the Bishop of the place testified to the good conduct of the students and the discipline observed in the government, and said he had never heard any complaints of the rule of the Irish Fathers. Finally, the Rector of the Royal College, to whose supervision the Irish College was subject, declared that all the charges made by the memoralists were false and wholly destitute of foundation.

In spite of these testimonies in favour of the Irish Fathers, the government of the Irish College was by order of the King taken from then and a Spanish Jesuit was appointed Rector. This royal order remained in force for only three years, 1605-1608. The arrangement was found by experience to be unsatisfactory both for the finances and the discipline of the College, Indeed, it would have proved ruinous to the College had not Fr William Bathe, Fr Richard Conway, and, later, also Fr Janes Comerton, who dwelt in it as confessors and preachers, exerted all their influence to keep things quiet, and in general to promote the interests of the College.

The efforts of the Irish Fathers to help the Irish students in the midst of numerous difficulties were fully appreciated by the Jesuit General, Fr Claudius Aquaviva, who on April 3rd, 1607, complimented Fr Conway on what he was doing for them. But the state of affairs brought about by the royal interference rendered all efforts well nigh futile. Soon the General came to see that if the Seminary was to do efficient work it would have to be committed to the charge of the Irish Fathers, and wrote to this effect to the Spanish Provincial on July 24th, , 1607. The Spanish Rectors themselves readily admitted their unsuitability for the position, and the last of the three who held office during those three years appealed to the Provincial to appoint Irish Rectors in future. Finally the King was requested to revoke his former order, which he did on March 24th, 1608. Fr Richard Convay was chosen as the person most fitted to take on the government of the College, and he entered upon his office as Rector on May 6th of the same year.

During the time of the Spanish Rectors, as well as during the whole of his subsequent career, Fr Conway continued his activity on behalf of the Irish students and refugees. In a contemporary account we read that he often went to the Court and other places to seek alms for the support of his seminarists and by his zeal, pleasant manners, and exemplary life succeeded in getting large contributions for their relief, many other students and priests, for whom the Seminaries had no room, he assisted by giving them enough to enable then to pursue their studies in Salamanca, Alcala, Valladolid, Granada, and Cordova. His zeal did not confine itself to students, ecclesiastical or lay, but extended itself to relieving a large number of Irish girls who fled from Ireland for religion's sake to Spain. He sought alms for them all, and settled them in good positions. Some entered convents, while for others he begged dowries, and left then honourably and virtuously married. In the matter of getting alms, he was greatly helped by the fact that he had easy access to the houses of the highest gentlemen at the Court, including even the King and Queen, and the Prelates and Chapters, all of thom he won over by his good example and by his conversation. Thile seeking to relieve the material necessities of his countrymen, he did not neglect their spiritual needs. He preached not only to his seminarists, but also to externs, gave them the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, and sought their society only to win them and improve them spiritually.

His interest in the students did not cease when they left college, He followed then with paternal anxiety, and supported them by his advice when they had returned to their dangerous mission, and they on their part kept up a filial correspondence with him. Their letters shout the spirit with which they faced the danger's that surrounded them. The Rev Eugene O'Brien wrote to Fr Conway from Galway on September 30th, 1606, to tell him of the efforts made to take him when the persecutors found that he was an alumnus of the Spanish College. From Waterford the Rev John Wadding wrote in October of the same year, praising the constancy of the Mayor and Councillors of that city, several of whom had been taken prisoners by the heretics. Another former student, Rev Luke Bennett, a relative of his own, writing from Dunmore, in Leinster, in April, 1607, describes the persecution in his native New Ross, and tells how the faith is preserved in the district by the ministrations or four other priests from the Slamanca College, The Licentiate, Thomas Wise, who had gone from Salamanca to Rome, wrote to Fr Conway in June, 1607, telling hin of the barbarous cruelties inflicted on another former pupil. Thady Dimiran, because he refused to abjure the faith.

In 1611 the General wished Fr Conway to go to Rome and assist him with his advice in matters concerning the Irish Mission; but he yielded to representations made by Fr Thomas White and others, who explained how much his services were required in Spain.

In the year 1610 the Irish College of Salamanca was the recipient of several privileges and favours, A new building was presented to the Irish by the States of Castile, etc. A slab was placed over the door to commemorate the event. A new title, Colegio de Nobles Irlandeses (College of Irish Nobles), was given to the new establishment, which was formally made a royal college, and placed under the protection of the Kind, and, in addition to the ordinary annual alms given by the King to the College, Philip III undertook to pay every student his travelling expenses back to Ireland on the completion of his studies. These grants, largely due to Fr Conway's intercession, secured the future of the College.

But the government of the College, the begging of alms for its support, the solicitation of royal favours, did not exhaust the activities of Fr. Conway. Whilst engaged in these absorbing occupations, he compiled a work on English tyranny in Ireland, the publication of which was stopped lest the irritation of the King of England might endanger the lives of the Jesuits in Ireland and England and lead to a more violent persecution of the Catholic priests and laity in these countries. Whether the book was ever completed or not is not known, but certain short tracts, which may have been intended to form chapters of the complete work, have been preserved. Among these, his treatise on Irish saints marks him out as one of the pioneers of Irish hagiography.

During the last two years of Fr Conway's rectorship at Salamanca he was much occupied with the negotiations that transferred the Irish College at Santiago de Compostella to the care of the Irish Fathers or the Society of Jesus in Spain. This College had been founded in the year 1605 by the King of Spain, at a time when thousands of Irish exiles fled to that country to escape the persecution of the English heretics. £100 per annun was granted to the students by the King, and the Rev Eugene MacCarthy, a secular priest, was appointed Rector of the College. This arrangement did not work satisfactorily, and Philip III determined to entrust it to the Irish Fathers. He wrote to this effect to the Provincial of Castile, Fr Gaspar de Vegas, and the Governor of Galicia, D Luis Henriquez. Owing to the straitened circumstances of the Province of Castile the Provincial hesitated about accepting the additional burden. Fr Conway forwarded to the General a statement of the case, giving the reasons for and against acceptance. The General in his reply favoured acceptance. Meanwhile Fr Eugene MacCarthy undertook the defence of the existing arrangement, and in a letter to the Provincial accused the Irish Fathers of being actuated by motives of ambition and self-interest in attempting to capture the College. Fr William White, SJ, had no difficulty in refuting these charges; the Provincial's opposition weakened, and in April, 1613, the question was finally settled by an express order to the Provincial from the Duke de Lerma, on the part of the King, for the Fathers to take charge of the College.

In consequence of this order, Frs Thomas White, William White, and Richard Conway sent to Santiago and took possession of the College, and on the 16th July the General wrote to the Provincial to order Fr Conway to take up the government of the Seminary of Santiago.

Fr Conway occupied the position of Rector from 1613 to 1618, though his other office of Procurator of the Irish Mission often compelled him to be in Madrid, especially towards the end of his term. He threw llimself with characteristic energy into the work of establishing and developing the new Seminary. The royal allowance of £100 per annum sufficed for the support of a small number of students, but by alms which he succeeded in obtaining from the clergy and the faithful he was able to maintain as many as twenty-five. He drew up plans for linking up the Seminaries of Salamanca, Santiago, and Lisbon, to prevent overlapping, by having humanities taught in one, philosophy in another, and theology in the third. He looked after the spiritual interests of the Irish in Santiago, and as many of them were soldiers from France and the Low Countries, he arranged for the sending of Irish Jesuits who understood French and Flemish to minister to them. Another favourite idea of his was to unite the two Colleges of Salamanca and Santiago at the latter place. This would have economised on the staff and would have been beneficial to the health of the students; but no change was made.

Some disagreements and disputes arose during these years between O'Sullivan Beare and Fr Contay. In 1614 the former complained to the General of the expulsion of certain students from the Seminary, which, he said, had been established by the royal bounty, and with his consent transferred to the Society of Jesus. After full examination, however, Fr Conway's action was approved by his Superiors. Another complaint was in respect of a house granted him by the King, of which he had been deprived by Fr Conway. This dispute was brought into the courts, and the claim of O'Sullivan Beare was upheld. It was a curious example of a double grant. In the decree of the Royal Camera, dated 29th July, 1617, it is said that the Camera, when it granted the house in question to the Seminary, was not aware that a grant had previously been made of the same house to O'Sullivan Beare, and that consequently the house was adjudged to him. There is no imputation against the good faith of Fr Conway in this law suit,

During the progress of the case, O'Sullivan Beare petitioned the King to have the former semi-laical character of the College of Santiago continued, maintaining that there was greater need of Catholic gentlenen in Ireland than of priests. Fr Conway resisted this interference, and his action received the approval of the General, Fr. Mutius Vitelleschi, who succeeded Fr Aquaviva on the latter's death in 1615. In April, 1618, on the appointment of Fr James Comerfort as Rector of Santiago, Fr Conway was left free to act as Procurator of the Irish Mission in Madrid. He had been carrying on the duties of this position since 1608, and had to deal with many important matters concerning the welfare of the Irish seminaries in Spain. Between 1613 and 1624 he carried on a good deal of correspondence about what is termed “the Sicilian money” - a legacy of the late Queen, amounting to between 6,000 and 7,000 ducats, half of which was to be invested for the support of the Mission. The exhausted state of the Sicilian treasury caused the payment of this sum to be deferred, and finally all hope of receiving it was abandoned.

Another important affair entrusted to the care of Fr Conway was that of the pension of Archbishop David Kearney, of Cashel. As the Archbishop was for many years at the beginning of the seventeenth century the mainstay of ecclesiastical organisation in Ireland, Philip III of Spain, in order to enable him to promote the interests of the Church, assigned to hin a pension of 2,000 ducats on the Bishopric of Cadiz. With the approval oi the General, the Archbishop in 1611 appointed Fr Conway his agent to conduct the necessary negotiations. These negotiations continued until the Archbishop's death in 1621, and the subsequent arrangements to carry out the disposal of the money in accordance with his wishes, and to resist the claims of the English and Scotch Colleges in Spain, occupied the attention of Fr Conway till his death, two years later, and dragged on for four years after that time.

In 1619 Fr. Conway vas recalled from Madrid, and sent to take up the position of Rector of the Irish College of Seville, which in that year was handed over to the Irish Jesuits. Eight years previously the General had been asked by Don Felix de Guzman, a Sevillian nobleman, Archdeacon and Canon, to undertake the management of such a college, but the General was unwilling to do so, as an English College already existed in the same city, and he wrote to that effect to Fr Conway, who as then in Lisbon, on December 6th, 1622. In the following year the Apostolic Nuncio in Spain gave leave for the collecting of alms for the Irish students of Seville, but again in this year, and in the two succeeding years, the General expressed his unwillingness to have the Society associated with the projected College.

The College was duly opened, and for the next few years was governed by a succession of secular priests, of whom the first two were Irish and the next four Spaniards. As the numerous changes indicate, the arrangement did not prove satisfactory, and Don Felix de Guzman and Don Geronimo de Medina Ferragut renewed their exertions to induce the Jesuits to take over the government of the College. Don Felix offered to support the Fathers sent, and Don Geronimo offered to make over the house which the students occupied, on the sole condition that the College should be called the College of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mother of God and of the Holy Catholic Faith, which name it retained ever afterwards. Fr Conway was now in favour of the Society taking over the College, and the King wrote expressing his desire that this should be done. In April, 1619, the Provincial and his Consultors agreed to accept, notwithstanding the grave difficulties which presented themselves, and this decision was approved by the General on June 19th. On the same day he wrote to Fr Richard Conway telling him to proceed to Seville to take charge of the new College.

The Society took possession of the College on August 20th, 1619. Fr Conway and Fr Michael de Morales (Cantuell) drew up an inventory of its goods and a list of the students. The effects left by the preceding administration were valued at only £12, and several large debts had been incurred which had to be paid afterwards. Fr Conway mentions the names of six students. The names of six others are known, and another account says that there were in all fifteen.

In view of the necessities of the Irish Seminary of Seville, the Holy See on September 9th, 1619, granted, in answer to a petition of Fr Conway, permission to the fishernien of Andalusia to fish on șix Sundays and holidays in the year, on the understanding that “the fruit of their toil should be given freely and without condition to the Irish College of Seville for the support of the Rector and students and persons employed in their services”.

To raise funds for the Irish Seminaries, all of which, but especially that of Seville, were in great need, Fr Conway proposed that some Irish Fathers should be sent from Spain to the Indies, that is, to Mexico and South America, with a view to collecting alms. When that proposal was not favourably entertained, he begged the General to write to the Provincials of the Indies to ask then to do whatever they could, and he suggested that the Provincial of Mexico should be requested to set aside Fr Michael Godinez (Wadding) for that work. The first part of the proposal was agreed to, but what the ultimate success of the project was we do not know.

During the years 1622-1623 complaints were made to the General of the way in which Fr Conway was running the College. The matters complained of were not of serious import. He is said to have admitted more students than the revenues of the institution could support, and to have allowed confessions to be heard in the church of the Seminary instead of sending the penitents to the Casa Professa, according to the regulations already laid down. Another complaint was that “the students of the Irish College went one day during the summer months in their collegiate gowns to bathe in the river, and returned home two hours after nightfall”. The real reason underlying all the complaints were seemingly Fr Conway's zeal in collecting alms, and new regulations were made with regard to requesting support for the College in the city. Fr Conway's alms-questing was not without some exciting experiences, for at least on one occasion, when going along the road for this purpose, he was set upon by robbers, who deprived him of everything he had, beat hin severely, and left him with his hands tied at the foot of an olive tree, where he lay for some time before he was able to free himself and make his way to a neighbouring village.

Towards the end of the year 1623, Fr Luis Ramirez was appointed Rector of the Irish College of Seville, and Fr Conway returned to his forner office of Procurator of the Irish Mission at the court of Madrid. On the 22nd December of that year he laid before the General a new plan for increasing the provision made for the education of the Irish secular clergy. This was to petition the Holy See to allow the Chapters of the Churches of Spain to receive tho Irish students each for the Irish Missions into the seminaries founded by order of the Council of Trent, notwithstanding the decree of that Council that the seminarists should be natives of the dioceses. The General deferred the consideration of this suggestion until the approval of the Chapters should have been obtained.

Another prospect for the development of colleges for the Irish secular clergy opened when towards the end of 1623 the Grand Prior of England of the Order of St. John set aside 2,000 ducats as a beginning of a foundation of an Irish College in Rome. Fr Conway was directed to forward the sum to Rome, so that it might be used to buy a site or be allowed to lie at interest until there would be enough for the end intended. In the following year, 1625, the General announced to him that the foundation of an Irish Seminary in Rome by Cardinal Ludovisi was taking shape slowly, but that it was not known when it would be put into execution.

On June 2nd, 1624, Fr Conway informed the General that the King and Council, recognising that the Irish Seminary at Douay was not being well administered by those who had charge of it, wished to entrust it to the Society. In reply, the General told him that, if the matter was as represented, the King and Council would be sure to give some sign of their desire, but that meanwhile he was not to speak about the subject or try in any way to have the Seminary entrusted to the Society. Similarly, when he announced in the following year the foundation of a new Irish Seminary at Alcala, he was told to have nothing to do with it: “Better improve those of Salamanca, Seville, and Santiago, so that they may be able to support more alunni”.

In 1624 he appealed to the Catholic King to recommend the needs of the Irish students to the bishops of Spain, and in a letter dated St Laurence (the Escorial), 31st October, 1624, King Philip III wrote recommending them to the Bishop of Zamora, as he had already recommended then, he says, to the prelates of Seville and Jaen.

Meanwhile affairs were not proceeding well in the Irish Seminary of Seville, Before a year elapsed Fr Ramirez asked to be relieved of the rectorate. The Spanish Fathers were not able to manage the Irish students. On the 7th July, 1625, Fr. Conway was ordered to proceed to Seville and take charge of the Seminary, as soon as he had settled up his affairs in Madrid; but it was not until Christmas that he arrived in Seville, and entered upon his duties as Rector of the Seminary for the second time. Under his management the disorders ceased, and he was congratulated on the zeal with which he looked after the interests of the College.

In January of the following year, 1626, the Seminary suffered great loss from the overflowing of the river. A good part of the building collapsed, and Fr Conway's efforts for the welfare of his students won considerable praise. He found accommodation for them in different places, but remained on in the house himself, and when he had collected what was necessary for their support he carried the food to them every day on foot. A few months later, in August, 1626, he became seriously ill, and he died on the lst of December, after having received the last Sacraments.

In this sketch of Fr. Conway's life and work little has been said of his spiritual life. From the difficulties he overcame and the greatness of the work he accomplished it has been possible, no doubt, to form some idea of those interior forces which supernaturalised his external activities, but there is abundant testimony given by those who lived with him to his religious virtue and holy life. Especially remarkable was his constancy in prayer. As the hours of the day did not suffice for his many devotional exercises, he devoted to them a large part of the night. We are told, that, though it was generally twelve or one o'clock when he retired to rest, he rose before four in the morning. His spiritual note-books, which reveal the daily life of his soul, contain so many prayers and devotions, distributed by days, weeks, months, and years, that it would seen he had nothing else to do. His fasts and other mortifications were also noticed by his contemporaries. He slept three nights a week on the ground; he fasted every Saturday, and each day he gave a large part of his food to the poor. He wore clothes cast off by others, and at his death the only thing that he seems to have possessed was a small cross, half broken. As a final example of his spirit of detachment and abnegation may be mentioned the fact that, although for many years he had leave from his Superiors' to return to his native land, he never made use of it, lest by doing so he might neglect the Irish exiles abroad.

Fr Conway was not only a devoted son of the Catholic Church, but a great lover of Ireland. In the heat of controversy O’Sullivan Beare spoke of him as Anglo-Irish. Geoffrey Keating was accused of being the same, and his reply to the accusation might have been penned by Fr Richard Conway. For Fr Conway spoke the Irish language, and was as familiar with Irish history and tradiions as any O'Sullivan. By his words and writings he revived the name and fame of Ireland on the Continent. It was through him, as far as we can discover that the Codex Salmanticensis, from which Fr. John Colgan, OSF, and the Bollandists derive so much of their knowledge of Ireland's early saints, came into possession of the Irish College of Salamanca, and was thus preserved for future ages. The seminaries he founded frustrated the British plan of perverting Ireland through enforced ignorance.

To Salamanca, the first of the seminaries which lie ruled, he transmitted that tradition of learning and love of Ireland which such men as Fr Paul Sherlock and Fr Peter Reade afterwards handed on. Ireland may well be proud of him, and so may the Society of Jesus. At a time when the memory of the canonisation of St Ignatius and St Francis Xavier was still fresh in Spain, a Spanish contemporary does not hesitate to compare him with both these illustrious saints : “Fr Richard Conway”, he says, “was one of the true sons of our glorious Father, St Ignatius, and a true imitator of that zeal for souls that consumed the heart of the glorious Father, St Francis Xavier, on the eve of whose feast he was called to his reward by God, leaving to us who remain after him his exemplary life for our initiation and consolation”.

John MacErlean SJ

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973
Father Richard Conway 1572-1626
Fr Richard Conway, together with Fr John Houling and Fr Thomas White, may be reckoned as one of the Saviours of the Faith in Ireland. This claim is based on his work of founding and maintaining Irish Colleges, mainly in Spain and Portugal, by means of which a steady flow of secular priests, Jesuits and educated Irish gentlemen was poured into the country, when all means of higher education had been eeradicated by the English authorities

Richard Conway was born in New Ross in 1572, and he sought the education, deniend him at home, in Lisbon, at the age of sixteen or seventeen. There he met Fr John Howling, and under his aegis became a Jesuit at Coimbra in 1592. Thenceforward, his whole life was dedicated to the education andservice of trhe countless Irish refugees flybing from persecution at home. He founded the Colleges of Santiago and Seville, and by a lifetime questing alms and wisely governing various Irish Colleges, fought the good fight, which prompted Fr MacErlean to say of him “Ireland may well be proud of him, and so may the Society of Jesus”.

Some time before his death, while collecting alms, he was waylaid by robbers and deprived of everything he possessed.He was neated severely, and he was left with his hands toed to the bottom of an olive tree. He cried aloud for help but noone came. He invoked Our Lady and his Guardian Angel, whereupon his bonds were loosened, and he made his way to a nearby town.

On his death bed, December 1st 1626, before he closed his eyes forever, Christ Our Lord appeared to him, and as a foretaste of the glorious reward in store for him, led him unto a charming region, where he beheld strange and secret sights.

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
CONWAY, RICHARD. I learn from two letters of Dr. David Kearny, Archbishop of Cashell, of the 15th of July, 1616. and the 30th ot September, 1616, that this confidential Agent was actively employed In Spain in his Grace s service. The Father was at Madrid in October, 1624.

Dillon, Peter, d 1679, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2310
  • Person
  • d 14 April 1679

Born: County Meath
Entered: 1627, Andalusia - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Died: 14 April 1679, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

◆Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Two Entries
DOB Meath; Ent c 1627 Andalusia; RIP post 1634
c 1634 was in BAE (IER August 1874)

Dillon, Thomas, 1611-1690, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1188
  • Person
  • 1611-07 February 1690

Born: 1611, County Meath
Entered: 02 February 1627, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 1635, Granada, Spain
Final Vows: 08 December 1647
Died: 07 February 1690, Granada, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

Alias de Leon

1629 First Vows at Seville College 14 February 1629
1633 At Córdoba College - had studied 3 years Philosophy and 2 years Theology
1639-1643 Professor of Humanities, Logic, Philosophy and Metaphysics already for 3 years at Professed House Seville
1644-1690 At Granada : Teaching, Theology, Philosophy, Rhetoric, Logic
1661 Was rector of Granada College
Was at Granada presiding over a Thesis by De Vagara on 01 March 1653

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Educated in Spain.
Taught Philosophy six years, and Moral Theology eighteen years with distinction at Seville and Granada
1661 Deputed by the Andalusia Province to the Eleventh General Congregation, cum jure suffragii
He was “Linguarum Orientalium at abstrusioris doctrinae veterum Exploratur eximius” - Antonio, “Hispana Nova p 247 (Oliver, Stonyhurst MSS)
Writer and praised by Kiercher for his knowledge of Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, as well as the abstruse sciences of the ancients
Dr Talbot says his real name was “Talbot”

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ:
Had studied at Seville before Ent 02 February 1627 Seville
After First Vows he completed his studies at Cordoba and Granada and was Ordained at Granada 1635.
After four years at teaching Úbeda and Cádiz he was appointed Chair of Philosophy at San Hermenegildo’s in Seville. Three years later he was appointed to Granada as Chair successively of Philosophy, Moral Theology and Dogmatic Theology. He remained at Granada where he died 07/02/1690
In 1661 He was entrusted by the General with the difficult task of recovering custody of a legacy of the Archbishop of Cashel for the Irish Mission, which had been claimed by the Provincial of Andalusia (BAE). After four years of negotiation he was successful.
Superiors of the Irish Mission had also tried repeatedly over years to have him appointed their Procurator at Madrid.

◆ Royal Irish Academy : Dictionary of Irish Biography, Cambridge University Press online :
Dillon (De Leon), Thomas
by Elaine Murphy

Dillon (De Leon), Thomas (1613–90), Jesuit and scholar, was born in Ireland and educated in Spain. In 1627 he entered the Society of Jesus in Seville. He taught philosophy and then scholastic and moral theology at the society's colleges at Seville and Granada. In 1640 he was professor of humanities at Cadiz and, in 1661, he was deputed by the province of Andalusia to the eleventh general congregation. He was highly regarded for his knowledge of languages, including Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic. He produced two major works; the first, entitled ‘Lección sacra en la fiesta célebre que hizo el collegio de la Compagnia de Jesús de la ciudad de Cadiz en hazimiento de gracias a Dios Neustro Señor por el complimiento del primer siglo de su sagrada religión’, was published on the centenary of the Society of Jesus in 1640. His second work was a manuscript commentary on the book of Maccabees. By 1676, Dillon, or de Leon as he was also known, was residing at the Jesuit college in Granada suffering from ill health and failing eyesight. He died 7 February 1690 at Granada.

G. Oliver, Collections towards illustrating the biography of the Scotch, English and Irish members of the Society of Jesus (1838), 225; E. Hogan, ‘Chronological catalogue of the Irish members of the Society of Jesus, from the year 1550 to 1814’, Records of the English province of the Society of Jesus, ed. H. Foley, vii, no. 2 (1883), 1–96; DNB, v, 992; Crone, 53; ODNB

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973
Father Thomas Dillon (De Leon) SJ 1613-1676
Thomas Dillon was born in Ireland in 1613. He is more commonly known by his Spanish name “De Leon”.

He was a pensioner of the Irish College at Seville, and at the age of 14 left for the Novitiate at St Louis. He taught Philosophy and Theology at Granada. He received a high encomium from Athanasius Kirsher for his profound knowledge of Greek, Hebrew and Arabic : “Linguarum orientalium et abstrusioris doctrinaeveterum exploratur eximius”. Peter Talbot called him “the oracle of Spain”. He compose his works mainly in Spanish.

While teaching at Cadiz, he published a Spanish panegyric on the Centenary of the Society in 1640. He also arranged materials for a Commentary on the Book of Maccabees, but ill health and weak sight hindered publication.

After 1676 there is no record of him

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
DILLON, THOMAS, was born in 1613, and was educated in Spain. For many years he taught Philosophy and Divinity, with distinguished credit at Seville and Grenada. We learn from his friend Antonio, p. 247, Hispana Nova, that F. Kircher, a very competent judge, pronounced him to be “Linguarum orientalium et abstrusioris doctrines Vcterum Explorator eximius”. Whilst teaching Humanities at Cadiz, he published a Spanish Panegyric on the Centenary of the Society of Jesus, 4to. Seville, 1640. He also arranged materials for a Commentary on the Books of Maccabees ; but delicate health, and weakness of sight, prevented him from finishing them for the press. After 1676 I cannot trace his biography.

Fanning, Edward, 1648-1689, Jesuit brother

  • IE IJA J/1270
  • Person
  • 1648-03 September 1689

Born: 1648, County Limerick
Entered: 08 May 1673, Seville Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Died: 03 September 1689, Limerick Residence - Baeticae Province (BAE)

1646 Sacristan Limerick
1673 Porter and Procurator Limerick
1675-1682 In Irish College Seville

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Related to Stephen Rice
Ent as Brother
1682 As he was heir to a considerable inheritance he sought and received the General’s permission to return to Ireland and claim it (Fr General’s approval 24 October 1682). he remained in Limerick until his death 03 September 1689

Gaydon, Nicholas, 1652-1670, Jesuit novice

  • IE IJA J/1356
  • Person
  • 1652-01 January 1670

Born: 1652, Dublin
Entered: 1669, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Died: 01 January 1670, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
May have been a brother of Francis Gaydon
Studied Humanities at Ambert, France before Came to Irish College Seville, and shortly afterwards Ent in Seville July 1669.
He died as a Novice in Seville six months after Ent on 01 January 1670.

Genet, Patrick, 1699-1728, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1359
  • Person
  • 17 March 1699-26 July 1728

Born: 17 March 1699, Dublin
Entered: 23 October 1716, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 06 March 1726, Granada, Spain
Died: 26 July 1728, El Puerto de Santa Maria, Andalusia, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Probably a brother of Father James Gennet who died at Cook Street, Dublin, 16 October, 1763
Came to the Irish College Seville as a student of Humanities in 1714, and became a Seminarian 06 January 1615, before Ent 06 March 1726 Granada
After First Vows and completing his Philosophy at Seville he was sent to Granada for Theology and Ordained there 06 March 1726
1726-1727 Made Tertianship at Granada
1727 Sent to Jerez to teach Humanities but because of failing health he was sent to El Puerto de Santa Maria where with failing health he died 26 July 1728
His “carta necrologia” describes him as “a young man of great promise and remarkable holiness”

King, John, 1714-1768, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1540
  • Person
  • 24 June 1714-12 April 1768

Born: 24 June 1714, Crickstown, Co Meath
Entered: 18 July 1741, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 20 December 1738, Seville, Spain - pre Entry
Final Vows: 15 August 1755
Died: 12 April 1768, Galway Residence

1743 was in Carmona

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
A good Thelogian and stood a public examination in Philosophy and Theology
1750-1755 At Galway
1766-1767 Rector at Salamanca until the Jesuits were expelled from Spain

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Probably educated at the Dublin Jesuit School where he became known to Leonard Sweetman who recommended him to the General for admission to Andalusia, and the General wrote to the Provincial there asking him to accept John. That he was not then received may be traced to unpopularity of the Irish with the Spanish Jesuits as a result of the friction caused by John Harrison. He was admitted to the Irish College, Seville and was Ordained priest there 20 December, 1738 before Ent 18 July 1741 also in Seville
1740-1746 After First Vows he was sent for a Regency to teach at Carmona, and then sent for more studies at Seville.
1746-1748 Tertianship at Baéza and remained there for a year as Minister.
1748-1750 Sent to teach at Úbeda
1750-1765 Sent to Ireland and to Galway Residence
1766 Rector at Irish College Salamanca in succession to John O’Brien, where he arrived 26 July 1766. He was the last Rector there when the Jesuits were expelled in 1767
1767 It is assumed that he made his way back to Galway and spent the rest of his life there until his death 12/04/1768
An entry in Pue's Occurrences on 16 April, 1768, stated: "Died a few days ago at Galway, the Rev. Mr. John King, a Romish clergyman”

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
KING, JOHN, of Meath, was born on the 24th of June, 1715, and aggregated himself to the Society in the Province of Seville, on the 18th of August, 1741. He returned to serve the Mission of his native country in 1750, and was promoted to the rank of a Professed Father on the 15th of August 1755, whilst assisting in the care of souls at Galway.

Leonard, John, 1599-1622, Jesuit scholastic

  • IE IJA J/1571
  • Person
  • 1599-14 November 1622

Born: 1599, County Waterford
Entered: 1616, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Died: 14 November 1622, Irish College, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

1617 In TOLE age 18 Soc 1
1619-1622 In Granada College studying Theology

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
1618-1622 After First Vows sent to Granada for Philosophy, and then he was sent to Seville for Theology. While in Theology at Seville became ill probably with consumption. Doctors recommended that he return to Ireland, and Richard Conway, who brought him on the first stage of his journey home had obtained the General’s permission that he should be Ordained early before sailing. He died 14 November 1622 at Seville before the General’s permission arrived

Leonard, Philip, 1710-1759, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1573
  • Person
  • 01 May 1710-04 August 1759

Born: 01 May 1710, Dublin
Entered: 17 July 1732, Seville, Spain - Baeticae province (BAE)
Ordained: 1739/40, Granada, Spain
Final Vows: 15 August 1747
Died: 04 August 1759, Jesuit Church, Granada, Spain - Baeticae province (BAE)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Probably he received his classical education at the Jesuit School in Dublin.
He accompanied James MacInerney to Spain and shared the latter’s trials and disappointment over his deferred entry to the Society.
After First Vows he was sent to Granada for studies and was Ordained there 1739/40, and then made his Tertianship, also at Granada.
Not invited to join the Irish Mission due to complete lack of knowledge of Irish language, though he also found it difficult to acquire a good Spanish accent, and therefore not allowed to teach in the Colleges, or teach at University, which his intellectual ability merited.
1744 His entire Ministry was spent in Granada as Operarius at the Jesuit Church attached to the College, where he had a high reputation as a sound Spiritual Director and Confessor, and he died there 04 August 1759.

Lombard, Ignatius, 1614-1669, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1588
  • Person
  • 1614-01 September 1669

Born: 1614, Co Waterford
Entered: 24 February 1633, Villagarcía, Galicia, Spain - Castellanae Province (CAST)
Ordained: c 1643, Salamanca, Spain
Professed: 20 August 1651
Died: 01 September 1669, Irish College, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

1636 At León College CAST teaching Grammar Age 22 Soc 3;
1639 At Compostella teaching
1642 At Salamanca in 3rd year Theology good talent
1645 at Irish College Salamanca with Fr Sherlock
1648-1652 Rector of Seville College
1651 At Compostella College
1651 ANG Catalogue Was Procurator at Madrid and thought to be fit to be made Rector of Irish Seminaries in Spain
1655 Catalogue Ay Madrid, Procurator of Irish College and Mission
1666-1669 Rector of Seville College

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
1634 and 1638 Rector of Compostella
1666-1673 A most successful Rector of Seville
(cf Dr McDonald’s “Irish Colleges” and Foley’s Collectanea)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
1635-1643 After First Vows Sent for Regency to León and then for Philosophy at Compostella
1639-1643 Sent to Royal College Salamanca for Theology, where he was Ordained 1643
1643-1648 Teaching Controversial Theology at Royal College Salamanca
1648-1652 Rector at Irish College Santiago
1652-1666 Sent to Madrid as Procurator managing finances of Irish Mission. During this time he also was the General’s representative at the Royal Court on business affecting overseas missions. He was also entrusted on occasion with handling negotiations between the King and the Holy See. (His name does not appear in TOLE Catalogues of this period, so he must have had special permission from his own Province to do so).
1666 Rector of Irish College Seville 07 September 1666 where he died in office 01 September 1669

Lynch, Michael, 1701-1767, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1605
  • Person
  • 13 April 1701-04 February 1767

Born: 13 April 1701, Seville, Spain
Entered: 02 May 1724, Peru Province - Peruvianae Province (PER)
Ordained: 08 August 1733 Arequipa, Peru
Final Vows: 29 June 1745 Moquegua Peru
Died 04 February 1767, Spain - Peruvian Province (PER)

◆ Fr John MacErlean SJ :
He was a distinguished preacher in Spanish, and very efficient in instructing and converting English heretics. He was Procurator of various colleges for many years, as well as Rector. When the decree of banishment came in 1767 he was Rector of the College of Our Lady at La Paz, Bolivia. In spite of his birth at Seville he is called a foreigner by the Spanish officials. He arrived in Europe in 1768.

Lynch, Richard, 1610-1676, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1608
  • Person
  • 25 November 1610-18 March 1676

Born: 25 November 1610, County Galway
Entered: 14 September 1626 - Castellanae Province (CAST)
Ordained: c 1637, Salamanca, Spain
Final Vows: 24 August 1646
Died: 18 March 1676, Salamanca, Spain - Castellanae Province (CAST)

1633 At Pamplona College teaching Age 22 Soc 3
1636 At Seville College 3rd year Theology Age 24 Soc 4
1639-1640 At Seville finished Theology or “Repeating”. Spiritual Father in Church
1642 At Professed House Seville Minister and teaching Grammar Age 29 Soc 10, or, Teaching Philosophy at Metymno (Medina del Campo?) College Age 31
1644 Rector of Irish College Seville Age 38 Soc 12, or, Teaching Philosophy at Medina del Campo
1651 At Valladolid; 1655 Teaching Philosophy at Royal College Salamanca
1658-1676 At Salamanca, teaching Theology, Prefect of Studies

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Writer; Taught Humanities for three years, Philosophy for six, Holy Scripture for one, and Theology at Valladolid and Salamanca for twenty-five years
He published five folio volumes on Philosophy and Theology, two volumes of Sermons, and twenty-four Quarto volumes of MSS (cf R Lynch and Abarca and Barbiano “Biblioyh. de la Compagnie de Jésus).
His Spanish titles appear in a volume of his Sermons edited in 1674 “Catedratico de Prima del Colegio Real etc; aora Perfecto de sus estudios y Catedratico Jubilado de Visperas de la Universidad de Salamanca”.
He was one of the first three Jesuits to be honoured with DD at University of Salamanca. He was the admiration of the University, and was so subtle, brilliant, and eloquent, in the Chair of Theology, that he was constantly called on by the acclamation of his hearers to prolong his lectures. (See Southwell, Oliver, Foley and De Backer)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Had studied Philosophy at Santiago before Ent 14 September 1630 CAST
After First Vows he spent two years Regency at Pamplona and then resumed studies at Royal College Salamanca where he was ordained c 1637
1639 After Tertianship he spent a long career teaching Philosophy and Theology
1639-1645 Chair of Philosophy at Medina del Campo
1645-1655 He was then teaching Theology at Royal College of Salamanca and later at St Ambrose, Valladolid
1655 Back teaching Theology at Salamanca until his death
He held a doctorate in theology from the University of Avila and was the first graduate to graduate D.D. of Salamanca
His obituary notice speaks of him as “a wonder for learning” but emphasises also his zeal in the Priestly ministry as a Preacher and the radiant example of his Religious life

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973

Father Richard Lynch 1611-1676
There were at least four Richard Lynches in the Irish province of the Society in Penal times. We speak here of Richard the second.

He was born in Galway in 1611 and joined the Society at Compostella in 1630. For more than a quarter of a century he was the admiration of the Universities of Valladolid and Salamanca. His eloquence in the Chair of Theology was so brilliant, subtle and forcible, that he was constantly urged by the acclamation of his hearers to prolong his lectures.

He published five volumes on Philosophy and Theology, and two volumes of Sermons, besides leaving behind his twenty-four volumes of Manuscripts.

He died at Salamanca in 1676.

Lynch, Richard, 1611-1647, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1609
  • Person
  • 1611-16 August 1647

Born: 1611, County Galway
Entered: 10 July 1632, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 1638, Seville, Spain
Died: 16 August 1647, Professed House, Seville, Spain

There are at least 2 and possibly 5 of this name and the info in this document is somewhat mixed up between all
1633 At Pamplona College teaching Age 22 Soc 3
1636 At Seville College 3rd year Theology Age 24 Soc 4
1639-1640 At Seville finished Theology or “Repeating”. Spiritual Father in Church
1642 At professed House Seville Minister and teaching Grammar Age 29 Soc 10, or, Teaching Philosophy at Metymno (Medina del Campo?) College Age 31
1644 Rector of Irish College Seville Age 38 Soc 12, or, Teaching Philosophy at Medina del Campo
1651 At Valladolid; 1655 Teaching Philosophy at Royal College Salamanca
1658-1676 At Salamanca, teaching Theology, Prefect of Studies

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
1637-1645 Dean of the College of Seville
1645-1647 Rector of the College of Seville

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Had begun studies at the Irish College Seville 1630 before Ent 10 July 1632 Seville
After First Vows he studied Theology at Granada and then Seville where he was Ordained 1638
1639-1641 Prefect of Studied at Irish College Seville
He then made Tertianship at the Professed House, Seville, and taught Humanities for a year at Guadix and was an Operarius at the Church there.
1643 Sent back to Seville as Minister of Irish College
1644-1647 Rector Irish College Seville, succeeding Thomas Bryan (Briones) 01/02/1644
1647 His tenure at the Irish College was three years after which he withdrew to the Professed House Seville, and six months later he died there 16 August 1647
He had indifferent health but his Rectorship at Seville was long remembered for improvements to the chapel and buildings of the Irish College. He was very popular with the Irish students whose rights he vigorously upheld. In his latter time at the Professed House he was beginning to become known as a Spiritual Director of great ability.

◆ Royal Irish Academy : Dictionary of Irish Biography, Cambridge University Press online :
Lynch, Richard
by Aoife Duignan

Lynch, Richard (1611–47), Jesuit priest and rector of the Irish college, Seville, was born in Galway. His family background and early years are undocumented. He left Ireland in 1630 for Spain, where he was admitted to the Irish college in Seville. The college was to prove central to all subsequent experiences throughout his short life. He entered the Society of Jesus on 10 July 1632 and was sent to Granada at the end of his novitiate to further his theological studies. He returned to Seville in 1636 and completed his education at St Hermengildo's. Ordained in 1638, he was appointed prefect of studies at the Irish college in the summer of 1639. Although popular among the students, he became embroiled in controversy in October that year arising from complaints received by the Jesuit general, Father Vitelleschi, from students at the college concerning their Spanish superiors. The general, who noted that disquiet had emerged only after the appointment of the Irish cleric, and who had also received reports that Lynch showed too much favour to those students under his care, questioned his suitability for the post of prefect. He urged Lynch to keep the peace but unrest continued into the summer of 1640. Ultimately the local provincial, Father de Aguilar, was dismissed, reputedly on the grounds of a report sent to the general by Lynch, which led to an investigation into the administration of the college. Lynch was appointed rector on 1 February 1644, replacing Father Thomas Briones. His term is noted for improvements made to the college and church buildings. He was appointed novice master to the Jesuit church at Seville on 1 February 1647 and his talents as spiritual director and confessor emerged in this capacity. He died 16 August 1647 in Seville after a lifetime of ill health.

F. Finnegan, ‘A biographical dictionary of Irish Jesuits in the time of the society's third mission, 1598–1773’, Milltown Park MSS, Irish Jesuit Archives, Dublin; id., ‘Irish rectors at Seville, 1619–1687’, IER, 5th ser., 106 (1966), 45–63, esp. 53–5

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
LYNCH, RICHARD, was a boy in Galway, in 1611, and united himself to the Society at Compostella, in 1630. This eminent Scholar and Doctor of Divinity for more than a quarter of a century was the admiration of the Universities ofValladolid and Salamanca. It is said, he died in 1676. He left for posterity :

  1. “Cursus Philosophicus” 3 vols. fol. Lyons, 1654.
  2. Spanish Sermons. Salamanca. 1670.
  3. “De Deo, ultimo Fine”. 2 Vols. Salamanca, 1671.

MacInerney, James, 1709-1752, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1634
  • Person
  • 19 May 1709-16 September 1752

Born: 19 May 1709, Limerick City
Entered: 17 July 1732, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 1740, Granada, Spain
Final Vows: 15 August 1747
Died: 16 September 1752, Marchena, Andalusia, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
He had been recommended by Thomas O'Gorman and Ignatius Kelly to Salamanca, but the Rector John Harrison failed to keep his promise and admit him. He then applied to the BAE Provincial to admit him, but this was refused. He was then admitted to the English College Seville, where he completed two years of Philosophy before Ent 17 July 1732 Seville
After First Vows he finished Philosophy and went to Granada for Theology where he was Ordained 1740
1740-1741 Tertianship at Baeza
1741 He was sent to Granada as Operarius
At this time the Irish Mission Superior, Thomas Hennessy was straining every effort to have Mac Inerhiny sent back to Ireland because of his fluency in Irish. The General promised to send him but Spanish Superiors did not co-operate, and he was in 1745 sent to Malaga to teach Humanities and then assigned to a Chair in Philosophy there.
1750 Sent to Marchena to teach Philosophy and died there 16 September 1752

Malone, William, 1586-1656, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1667
  • Person
  • 06 February 1586-18 August 1656

Born: 06 February 1586, Dublin
Entered: 24 September 1606, St Andrea, Rome, Italy - Romanae Province (ROM)
Ordained: 1615, Coimbra, Portugal
Final vows: 21 April 1624
Died: 18 August 1656, Irish College, Seville, Spain

Superior Irish Mission 20 April 1647-1650 and 27 June 1654

Educated at Portugal, Rome and Irish College Douai
1614 At Évora LUS in 3rd years Theology
1617 In Ireland Age 31 Soc 11
1621 Catalogue Talent prudence and judgment good. Gentle, a good preacher.
1622-1626 In Ireland
1638-1647 Rector Irish College Rome (Arch I C Rome Lib V 199) - 10 May 1647 (in 1642 Fr Richard Shelton is Prefect)
1650 Catalogue 65 years old on Mission 35 - Superior Irish College Rome and Sup Irish Mission 3 years
1655 Catalogue In Professed House Seville “Hospes HIB and operarius”

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
The family had the title “Baron Sunderlin”
Very placid and gentle; A Good Preacher; Provincial; Writer; A good religious; Rector in Rome and Seville;
Irish Catalogues of 1609, 1621 and 1636 call him “Dublinensis”. In Foley’s Collectanea evidence is produced in favour of his being a native of Manchester. The author is of the view that Simon Malone was married in Manchester and returned home, or, that he took William to be educated in Manchester as “Harry Fitzsimon, and had him baptised there and that William was then sent to Rome.
William Malone Esq of Lismullen is on the Roll of Attainders of 1642
After First Vows did two years Philosophy and four Theology; He was proficient in English, French, Italian, Spanish and Latin.
Sent to Ireland 1615; Preacher and Confessor many years; Rector of Irish College Rome; Superior Irish Mission for three years (HIB Catalogue 1650)
Oliver, Stonyhurst MSS says DOB 1586. After studies in Rome and Portugal was sent to Ireland 1617, his name is on a list in 1617 (Irish Ecclesiastical Record August 1874);
Sent to Rome in 1635 as Rector of Irish College; Made Superior of Irish Mission 23 December 1647, succeeding Robert Nugent.
Taken prisoner at the siege of Waterford and deported. He went to Seville, and there he was appointed Rector of St Gregory’s 1651-1655 and he died there 15/08/1655 age 70.
His famous work dedicated to King Charles I : “A Reply to Mr James Ussher, his answere”, 1627, was published at Douai (cf de Backer “Biblioth. des Écrivains SJ”; Oliver, Stonyhurst MSS.
Hollingsworth - of “Christ College” - states he was born in Manchester 1592. This is supported by the paper by Rev Laurence Canon Toole SS, of St Wilfred’s Manchester, regarding his birthplace (Chronicle of Manchester at Chetham Library, also published as “Mancunis” in 1839). “Anno 1592, was borne in Manchester, William son of Simon Malone, a young man with pregnant wife, he was tempted by some Irish merchants till the rebellion broke out 1649... Seduced from the Reformed to the Romish religion, of which he became one of the most earnest and able assertors; he made a reply to Archbishop Usher’s answer to the “Jesuite’s Challenge”, but he was overmatched, his adversary being more eminently learned, and having truth on his syde
“Thomas de Warre, subsequently by inheritance, Lord de Warre, a priest and rector, or parson of the Parish Church of Manchester in the reign of Henry V, founded a college to be attached to that Church for the daily celebration of the Divine Office. This College was dissolved in the first of Edward VI; it was refounded by Queen Mary; suppressed again in the first of Elizabeth, and refounded again under the name :”Christ College” in 1578.
Oliver, Stonyhurst MSS gives date of RIP as 15 August 1655 age 70, making his birth 1586, six years earlier than Hollingsworth, who may have assumed date of Baptism to be DOB. There continues to be dispute about his place of birth in that his father’s name is in the marriage register in Manchester, and there is an entry in the burial register which suggests continual living in Manchester “1597, April 29, an infant douter of Symon Mallon”.

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Early education was at Douai
After First Vows he studied Philosophy at the Roman College and Theology at Évora and Coimbra (LUS) where he was Ordained 1615
1615 Sent to Ireland and Dublin. He immediately became involved in a controversy with James Ussher (afterwards Protestant Archbishop of Dublin). Ussher’s book “An answer to a challenge made by a Jesuit in Ireland” (1625) was triumphantly refuted by Malone in a work entitled “A Reply to Mr . James Ussher, his Answer”, published in Douai which reduced Ussher to silence and encouraged the Catholics.
1626-1637 Sent as Procurator to Rome
1637-1642 Rector of Irish College at Rome 10 December 1637. While in office he secured for the College the house in the Via Baccina, where it remained until the suppression
1642-1647 Prefect of Studies at Irish College Rome until 20 April 1647
1647-1650 Superior Irish Mission 20 April 1647. In more normal times he would have been eminently equipped for the duties of Superior in view of his past successes as a missionary priest in Ireland and an administrator at Rome. But taking into account the complicated politico-religious state of Ireland in 1647 and his long absence abroad he proved quite somewhat challenged by the tasks awaiting him. He identified himself with the Ormondist faction, quarreled with Rinuccini and caused a rift between his subjects of Old Irish and Anglo-Irish origin. In the first months following the “Censures” he was away temporarily and had entrusted the Office to John Young, and he had neglected to inform the General of the evolving crisis. It has been suggested that his actions later demonstrated that he sides with the small Ormondist faction on the Mission who had publicly sided with the “Confederation” against the Nuncio. In his 1649 Report to the General on the Irish Mission, Mercure Verdier recommended that he be replaced in office as soon as he had finished three years, but not before tat so as to avoid trouble with the Confederation. In the event, the General died 08/06/1949 and the election of his successor 21 January 1650, it became possible to replace Malone without incurring the displeasure of the Confederation.,
1650 He was replaced in office in January 1650, and was a very zealous missioner, but he was asked to act as Vice-Superior, 1653, on the arrest of William St. Leger. Despite the advice of the Visitor Mercure Verdier, he was again appointed Mission Superior 27 June 1654, but as he was then in prison he could not assume office. He was then deported to Spain and appointed Rector of the Irish College, Seville, 27 October 1655. By this stage he was in somewhat broken health, and much of the administration involved on the rectorship was devolved to his companion John Ussher. He died at Seville 18 August 1656
(Addendum. William Malone published in 1611 the first English translation of the works of - the then Blessed - Teresa of Avilá)

◆ Royal Irish Academy : Dictionary of Irish Biography, Cambridge University Press online :
Malone, William
by Terry Clavin

Malone, William (1586–1656), Jesuit, was born 6 December 1586 in Dublin, the son of Simon Malone, a local merchant, and his wife, Margaret Bexwick from Manchester. He studied humanities at Douai before entering the Society of Jesus on 24 September 1606 at Sant’ Andrea, Rome. After completing his theology course at the Roman college, he went to Portugal, where he studied theology at Evora and Coimbra and was ordained in 1615. He was sent to Ireland in 1615 on the Jesuit mission and was based in Dublin for the next eleven years.

Shortly after arriving in Ireland and at the request of his protestant friend Sir Piers Crosby (qv), he drew up a brief outline of the fundamentals of the catholic faith. Crosby brought this statement to James Ussher (qv), at that time professor of divinity at TCD and rector of Finglas. Malone then wrote a challenge for Ussher, asking of the protestant clergy when it was that the catholic church had fallen into error and how was it that the protestant faith could be true if it rejected a number of tenets held by the early church. Crosby brought this statement to Ussher and a relatively amicable private correspondence ensued between the two clerics as they debated the tenets of the early fathers of the church. Eventually, in 1624 Ussher published an expanded response to Malone's initial challenge. As the publication of catholic literature was prohibited in Ireland, Malone left for the Spanish Netherlands in 1626 and then arranged for the publication at Douai of his A Reply to Mr. James Ussher his answer (1627). In the Reply Malone details disagreements among protestant theologians and argues that the contrasting unity of the catholic church was the surest sign of the rightness of its claim to be the one true church. He notes that whereas previously protestant divines had based their arguments solely on scripture, they have more recently come to agree with the catholic position that the church fathers constitute an important religious authority. Controversially he dedicated the Reply to Charles I and declared that not even the pope could draw the catholics of Ireland from their obedience to their rightful king. Such fulsome expressions of loyalty met with the disapproval of many of Malone's fellow clergy and compatriots. The Reply eventually found its way into circulation in Dublin c.1629–30, after which, at Ussher's behest, three protestant writers published between 1632 and 1641 rejoinders to Malone's work, each dealing with a different topic in the debate.

After the publication of the Reply, Malone was sent to Rome to act as procurator of the Irish Jesuits there. From 1637 to 1647 he was rector of the Irish college in Rome and seems to have performed this task with great distinction. On hearing that Malone intended resigning as rector, the Jesuit superior in Ireland, Thomas Nugent, wrote to Rome in March 1641 begging that Malone remain at his post. Nonetheless he did resign in 1642, but remained in the college as prefect of studies until 1647.

He returned to Ireland that year to become superior of the Jesuit mission in Nugent's stead and soon found himself caught up in the political turmoil of those times. In May 1648 the papal nuncio to Ireland, GianBattista Rinuccini (qv), excommunicated all those who adhered to the truce between the supreme council of the Catholic Confederation and the protestant forces in Munster. He also prohibited church services and the normal administration of the sacraments throughout Ireland. This act divided the catholic laity and clergy and put Malone in a very difficult position. On one hand, the Irish Jesuits were predominantly the sons of wealthy Old English landowners, a group who broadly sympathised with the supreme council. Malone himself was Old English and supported the truce with Inchiquin. Indeed, he appears to have opposed the admission of Gaelic Irish clergy into the Jesuits and, unusually for a catholic clergyman, spoke no Irish. Given these views, it is not surprising that his relations with Rinuccini, whose most reliable supporters tended to be Gaelic Irish, had been tense. However, on the other hand, the Jesuit order stood for obedience to the pope above all else, and could hardly defy his representative in Ireland.

Malone finessed the situation with some skill, but little success, by ordering the Irish Jesuits to follow the example of their diocesan bishop regarding the nuncio's interdict. As most of the Jesuit houses were located in the dioceses of bishops who supported the supreme council this meant that, in effect, the Jesuit order did not observe the interdict. Only in Limerick did the Jesuit house defy the local bishop, and by implication Malone, by observing the interdict. Moreover, many Jesuits actively encouraged the supreme council's defiance of the nuncio and in August 1648 six leading Jesuits signed a declaration supporting the supreme council. At some point in late 1648, Malone visited Rinuccini in Galway city in an effort to convince him of his good intentions. However, the nuncio regarded Malone's behaviour as treachery and believed that the Jesuits played a major role in the failure of his excommunication to defeat the supreme council.

Meanwhile, the Jesuit general in Rome, Vincenzo Carafa, ordered Malone to travel to Bordeaux to explain his behaviour (which he declined to do) and sent Mercure Verdier to Ireland as Jesuit visitor, to ascertain the situation in Ireland. After meeting Rinuccini in Galway, Verdier travelled to Kilkenny to hear Malone and his supporters state their case. Recognising the depth of opposition to Rinuccini within the order, Verdier did not remove Malone from his position, and absolved the Irish Jesuits from Rinuccini's censures. The latter act angered the Jesuits who held that Rinuccini's interdict was invalid.

By the spring of 1650 Malone was in Waterford city, which was being besieged by Cromwellian forces. A plague broke out and Malone and other Jesuits were active tending to the sick and dying. The same year, he was replaced by Thomas Nugent as head of the Jesuit mission in Ireland. Following the fall of Waterford in 1651, Malone went into hiding and was eventually captured in Dublin in 1654. Initially sentenced to death, this was commuted to transportation to Barbados, before he was simply put on a ship for Cadiz in 1655. On 27 October 1655 he was appointed rector of the Irish college at Seville. However, his health was failing and most of the work was carried out by his colleague John Ussher, who succeeded Malone as rector following his death in Seville on 13 August 1656.

C. R. Elrington and J. H. Todd, The whole works of James Ussher, 17 vols (1847–64), iii, 3–5; W. J. Battersby, The Jesuits in Ireland (1854), 70–72; Annie Hutton, The embassy in Ireland (1873), 399, 413, 468–9, 473–5; Michael J. Hynes, The mission of Rinuccini (1932), 264–5, 297; Comment. Rinucc., vi, 139–40; D.Cath.B., ix, 573; Francis Finegan, ‘Irish rectors at Seville, 1619–1687’, IER, ser. 5., no. 106 (July–Dec. 1966), 45–63; D. Gaffney, ‘The practice of religious controversy in Dublin, 1600–41’, W. J. Sheils and D. Wood (ed.), The churches, Ireland and the Irish (1989), 145–58; Louis McRedmond, To the greater glory (1991), 49, 70–73, 78–9, 82–4; Tadhg Ó hAnnracháin, Catholic reformation in Ireland (2002), 241–3; Alan Ford, James Ussher (2005), 62, 67–8

◆ James B Stephenson SJ The Irish Jesuits Vol 1 1962
William Malone (1647-1650)
William Malone was born at Dublin on 6th February, 1586. After studying humanities and rhetoric at Douay, he entered the Novitiate of Sant' Andrea in Rome on 24th September, 1606. He studied philosophy at the Roman College, and theology at Evora and Coimbra in Portugal. Returning to Ireland in 1615, he was stationed in the district of Dublin. Soon after he became engaged in a controversy with James Usher, afterwards Protestant Primate. Usher's book, “An Answer to a Challenge made by a Jesuite in Ireland”, 1625, was triumphantly refuted by Fr Malone in a work entitled “A Reply to Fr James Usher, his Answer”, published at Douay in 1627, which reduced Usher to silence and encouraged Catholics greatly. In 1620 Fr Malone was made a Consultor of the Mission. On 11th April, 1624, he made his solemn profession of four vows. In 1626 he was sent as Procurator to Rome. When the administration of the Irish College, Rome, was given to the Society of Jesus by the will of the founder, Cardinal Ludovisi (1635), Fr Malone was selected to become Rector, but various obstacles arose which prevented him taking up that duty until 10th December, 1637. During his term of office he secured for the College the house in the Via Baccina, where it remained till the suppression of the Society. He ceased to be Rector on 1st February, 1642, but remained on as Prefect of Studies and Confessor till 20th April, 1647, when he was appointed Superior of the Irish Mission. During the dissensions that arose among Catholics on the occasion of the Nuncio Rinuccini's censures, he was a strong partisan of the Ormondist faction, and was in consequence denounced to Rome by the Nuncio. The General on 5th September, 16148, appointed a Visitor of the Irish Mission, and ordered Fr Malone to withdraw quietly to France. The Visitor, Fr Maurice Verdier, who arrived at Galway on 28th December, 1648, reported that it would be inadvisable to remove him just at that time. By the death of the General, on 8th June, 1649, all changes of Superiors were, with the approbation of the Holy See, suspended till a new General should be elected. Fr. Francis Piccolomini was elected on 21st December, 1649, and a few weeks later Fr Malone's Socius, Fr George Dillon, was appointed Superior of the Mission.

William Malone (1654)
Fr William Malone, who acted as Vice-Superior of the Irish Mission when Fr. William St Leger was exiled, was appointed Superior of the Mission for the second time on 27th June, 1654, but the General's letter to that effect can hardly have reached him before he, too, was tracked down by spies. To save his host he delivered himself up, and was sentenced to death. This sentence was afterwards changed to one of transportation to the Barbadoes; but just before he was put on board a ship sailing thither, another order arrived that he should be handed over to the captain of a ship bound for Cadiz. After many adventures he arrived there, and was appointed Rector of the Irish College at Seville on 27th October, 1655. But worn out by hardships he died there on 18th August, 1656, regretting the crown of martyrdom had escaped him.

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973
Father William Malone 1586-1656
William Malone was born in Dublin on February 6th 1586. After pursuing his studies at Douai, he entered the Socirty in Rome in 1606.
Returning to Ireland as a priest, he was stationed in Dublin where, like Fr Fitzsimon before him, he engaged in controversy with the Protestants, and became the great champion of the Catholics. He made his name in a clash with James Usher, afterwards Protestant Primate. The latter published a book entitled “An Answer to a Challenge made by a Jesuit in Ireland”. Fr Malone replied with his famous work “A Reply to Mr James Usher, his Answer”, published at Douai in 1627, which reduced Usher to silence and greatly encouraged the Catholics.

Fr Malone was the first Rector if the Irish College in Rome, when that institution was willed to the Jesuits by its founder, Cardinal Ludovisi in 1637. Ten years later Fr Malone was appointed Superior of the Irish Mission.

During the dissensions which arose among Catholics during Rinuccini’s mission, Fr Malone sided quite definitely with the Ormondist faction. As a result, he was denounced to Rome by the Nuncio, and the General appointed a Visiitor, Fr Verdier, to inquire into the state of affairs in Ireland. The General had in fact ordered Fr Malone to withdraw to the continent. It is interesting to note that the Visitor, after his investigations, advised against this course.

On the death of the General, his successor Fr Piccolini appointed Fr George Dillon as Superior in 1649. When Fr William St Leger, the next Superior after Fr Dillon was banished from Ireland, Fr Malone acted as Vice Superior, and was himself again appointed Superior in 1654. However, he was tracked down by spies, and to save his host he gave himself up.

He was banished to the Barbadoes, but the order was changed, and instead he was sent to Cadiz. On his arrival at Cadiz he was appointed Rector of the Irish College in Seville, but worn out by the hardships, he died there on August 18th 1656, regretting the crown of martyrdom which had escaped him.

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
MALONE, WILLIAM, a native of Dublin : enrolled himself at Rome, in 1606, amongst the Children of St. Ignatius. After pursuing his studies in that city, and finishing them in Portugal, he was ordered to the Irish Mission, to which during nearly a quarter of a century he rendered good service by his splendid talents, apostolic zeal, and extraordinary prudence. Recalled from Dublin, where he was Superior of his brethren, in the early part of the year 1635, to preside over the Irish College of St. Patrick at Rome, founded by Cardinal Ludovisi, he continued its Rector during the space of several years. Of his talents for government his brethren had formed the highest opinions. In a letter now before me addressed by F. Robert Nugent, the Superior of the Irish Mission, to the General Vitelleschi, of the 14th of March, 1641, he earnestly conjures him “not to yield to his petition of being released from the Rectorship of the College, however painful such pre-eminence may be that he knows no one at present qualified to succeed him in that office that there is not one of his brethren so conversant with the state of this Kingdom and Mission none so thoroughly acquainted with the character of the Irish youth as F. Malone”. On the 23rd of December, 1647, F. Malone was appointed Superior of the Irish Mission in the place of the said F. Nugent. His superiority fell in most difficult times.
In a letter dated Waterford, the l5th of March, 1649, he says, how thankful he should be to be relieved from it that the burthen was heavier on his shoulders than Mount Etna, insomuch that he could say with the Apostle (2 Cor. i. 8 ), he “was even weary of life”. Naturally of a most placid disposition, he found it impossible, during the period of the Interdict, to give satisfaction to the Party supporting the Nuncio, John Baptist Rinuccini * (a prelate ignorant of the country, and of very high pretensions ), and the conflicting interests of the supreme Council at Kilkenny. During the siege of Waterford, he was in the town : on its capture by the enemies of the Catholic Faith, he was apprehended and sent into banishment. On reaching Seville his talents for government were put in requisition, as Rector of F. Gregory’s College in that city. There he consummated his course of usefulness by the death of the righteous, in August, 1656, act. 70.
F. Malone will always rank among the ablest Champions of Orthodoxy in that immortal work entitled “A Reply to Mr James Ushers His Answere”, 4to. 1627, pp. 717. It was printed at Douay; but F. Southwell incorrectly fixes the date of publication to the year 1608. The admirable dedication of the work to King Charles I is abundant evidence of the Author’s loyalty and undivided Allegiance, as well as of his Patriotism. Harris’s notice of this truly learned work satisfies me, that he had never ventured to read it. See p. 130, Book I. Writers of Ireland. Doctor Synge, Archbishop of Tuam, and Dr. Joshua Hoyle, would have consulted their literary fame, had they not attempted to grapple with F. Malone.

  • The Latin Report of his Nunciature in Ireland is in the Holkam Library, and as translated by Archdeacon Glover, may be read in the Catholic Miscellany of October, November, and December, 1829. See also “Hiberaia Dominicana”, also Third Section of the “Political Catechism”, by T. Wyse, Esq. London, 1829. Lord Castleniaine, p. 277, of the “Catholic Apology”, 3rd edition, says that “The Pope on being informed of the Nuncio’s conduct, recalled him, and sent him to his Bishoprick, where he lived to his dying day in disgrace, and never had the least preferment afterwards”. He died on the 13th of December, 1653, aet. 61.

Morgan, Walter, 1576-1608, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1766
  • Person
  • 1576-02 November 1608

Born: 1576, Monmouth, Wales
Entered: 1601, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Died: 02 November 1608, Valladolid, Castille y León, Spain - Castellanae Province (CAST)

◆ CATSJ I-Y
has a “Walter Morgan?” RIP 29 November 1608 Valladolid
and
has a “William Morgan”; DOB 1583 Waterford; Ent 1601; RIP 02 October 1608 Valladolid

◆ In Old/15 (1) and Chronological Catalogue Sheet

Mulroney, Francis, 1598-1629, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1791
  • Person
  • 1598-30 August 1629

Born: 1598, Clonmel, County Tipperary
Entered: 1617, Toledo Province - Toletanae Province (TOLE)
Ordained: 1622/3, Murcia, Spain
Died: 30 August 1629, Clonmel, County Tipperary

1617 In TOLE Age 18 Soc 1

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Morony

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Probably a nephew of Andrew Mulroney, as he is described in a list of the Irish Jesuit Mission of 1626 as “Andreas Mulrony Junior”
Had studied at Salamanca before Entry 1617 TOLE
1617-1620 After First Vows (Novitiate done either at Madrid or Villarejo, and seems to have been sent on one year Regency at Belmonte in his second year)
1620-1623 Studied Theology at Murcia where he was Ordained 1622/23
1626-1626 Teaching at Carnavaca de la Cruz and later as Spiritual Father at the Irish College Seville
1626/27 Sent to Ireland. No details of his work are known except he was based in and died at Clonmel August 1629

Nugent, Christopher, 1603-1627, Jesuit scholastic

  • IE IJA J/1840
  • Person
  • 1603-23 October 1627

Born: 1603, Ireland
Entered: 09 July 1624, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Died: 23 October 1627 Coll San Hermenegildi, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
After First Vows he was sent to San Hermengildo in Seville for studies. he died there 23 October 1627

O'Brien, John, 1708-1767, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1853
  • Person
  • 20 December 1708-02 May 1767

Born: 20 December 1708, Waterford City
Entered: 22 October 1725, Villagarcía, Galicia, Spain - Castellanae Province (CAST)
Ordained: 11 November 1734, Salamanca, Spain
Final Vows: 02 February 1743
Died: 02 May 1767, Franciscans, Santander, Spain - Castellanae Province (CAST)

1766-1767 At Valladolid Operarius, Prefect of Health and Priests Sodality. Confessor of Tertians and Church
Taught Grammar, Philosophy, Theology and Concinator
Rector for 6 years and Procurator of CAST

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
1739-1743 Professor of Philosophy at Valladolid, and also Minister and Spiritual Father there
1743-1760 “Perhaps the most successful of all the Rectors of Salamanca and Seville.
His letters from 1741-1761 are at Salamanca (Dr McDonald in Irish Ecclesiastical Record and in letters to Hogan)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Son of Thomas and Mary née Carroll
Had studied at Irish College Santiago for one year before Ent 22 October 1725 Villagarcía
1727-1728 After First Vows he was sent for a year of Regency at Arévalo
1728-1735 He was then sent for Philosophy to Medina del Campo and then Theology at Royal College Salamanca where he was Ordained 07 November 1734
1735-1736 Tertianship at Valladolid
1736-1739 Sent to teach Humanities at Coruña and then Villagarcía
1739-1743 Sent to a Chair in Philosophy at St Ambrose, Valladolid
1743-1760 Rector of Irish College Salamanca 29 August 1743. The Superior of the Irish Mission, Thomas Hennessy, was annoyed by this appointment as he wanted O'Brien, a fluent Irish speaker, for work on the Mission
1760 At his own request, he was relieved of the burden of office at Salamanca. He had proven to be an excellent administrator and his Diario of the College kept faithfully throughout those years of his Rectorship is a valuable source of information for the history of the Catholic Church in Ireland.
He corresponded for many years with James Davin in Madrid, and many of the latter’s interesting and entertaining letters have survived.
He spent his last years as Operarius at Valladolid. At the expulsion of the Society from Spain he was too ill for the journey overseas. He found refuge with Franciscans at Santander where he died 02 May 1767

O'Callaghan, Richard, 1728-1807, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1867
  • Person
  • 25 September 1728-15 June 1807

Born: 25 September 1728, Dublin
Entered: 15 January 1753, Seville, Spain - Baeticae province (BAE) for Philippinae Province (PHI)
Ordained: 1753, Seville, Spain - Pre Entry
Died: 15 June 1807, Upper Church St, Dublin

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Had studied at Seville before Ent.
Spent many years in the Philippine Islands, where his tongue was split by the savages through hatred of his zeal and faith.
1771 Sent to Ireland in November 1771. There he preserved the funds of the Old Society for the Restoration, to which he always looked forward with confidence, and he may be called the founder of the Restored Society in Ireland. He was a very holy man and rejoined the Society at the Restoration.
He died 15 June 1807 in Dublin and is buried at the family plot in Ardcath, and not at the Convent in George’s Hill, as Oliver, Stonyhurst MSS has it.
Note from then Thomas Tasburg Entry :
Father R O’Callaghan’s sister was cured by an application of the above relic (Hogan)

◆ Fr John MacErlean SJ :
Educated at the English College Seville, where he was Ordained in 1728 and Ent for the Philippines Mission
1755 Arrived Manila on 14 July 1755 and did two years Theology
1757 Working on the Missions with natives (one one occasion his tongue was slit to stop him preaching his doctrine!)
1768 Minister at Residence of Barugo on the island of Leyte when Jesuits were expelled on 12 May 1768
1769 Arrived in Italy from Philippines and the General agreed for him to return to Ireland
1771 Arrives in Ireland and worked in Dublin during the suppression in 1773
1804 Entered the Restored Society
1807 Died in Dublin revered for his holiness

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Had already completed his Studies at English College Seville and was Ordained before Ent there 15 January 1753 Seville
After First Vows he was sent to the Philippines and arrived 14 July 1755. He completed his studies at Manila and worked in the Philippines until the Society was expelled from Spain and Spanish territories.
1774 He arrived from the Philippines in Spain he was instructed by the General to join the Irish mission and was back in Dublin by 07 February 1774, to sign the instrument accepting the suppression of the Society.
He was then incardinated into the Dublin diocese and served as a curate at St Mary's Lane Chapel. He was appointed “Fidei Commissarius” of the diocese in succession to John Fullam when he died.
At the partial restoration of the Society in 1804 he renewed his solemn profession and died a Jesuit, 15 June 1807.

◆ Fr Joseph McDonnell SJ Past and Present Notes :
16th February 1811 At the advance ages of 73, Father Betagh, PP of the St Michael Rosemary Lane Parish Dublin, Vicar General of the Dublin Archdiocese died. His death was looked upon as almost a national calamity. Shops and businesses were closed on the day of his funeral. His name and qualities were on the lips of everyone. He was an ex-Jesuit, the link between the Old and New Society in Ireland.

Among his many works was the foundation of two schools for boys : one a Classical school in Sall’s Court, the other a Night School in Skinner’s Row. One pupil received particular care - Peter Kenney - as he believed there might be great things to come from him in the future. “I have not long to be with you, but never fear, I’m rearing up a cock that will crow louder and sweeter for yopu than I ever did” he told his parishioners. Peter Kenney was to be “founder” of the restored Society in Ireland.

There were seventeen Jesuits in Ireland at the Suppression : John Ward, Clement Kelly, Edward Keating, John St Leger, Nicholas Barron, John Austin, Peter Berrill, James Moroney, Michael Cawood, Michael Fitzgerald, John Fullam, Paul Power, John Barron, Joseph O’Halloran, James Mulcaile, Richard O’Callaghan and Thomas Betagh. These men believed in the future restoration, and they husbanded their resources and succeeded in handing down to their successors a considerable sum of money, which had been saved by them.

A letter from the Acting General Father Thaddeus Brezozowski, dated St Petersburg 14/06/1806 was addressed to the only two survivors, Betagh and O’Callaghan. He thanked them for their work and their union with those in Russia, and suggested that the restoration was close at hand.

A letter from Nicholas Sewell, dated Stonyhurst 07/07/1809 to Betagh gives details of Irishmen being sent to Sicily for studies : Bartholomew Esmonde, Paul Ferley, Charles Aylmer, Robert St Leger, Edmund Cogan and James Butler. Peter Kenney and Matthew Gahan had preceded them. These were the foundation stones of the Restored Society.

Returning to Ireland, Kenney, Gahan and John Ryan took residence at No3 George’s Hill. Two years later, with the monies saved for them, Kenney bought Clongowes as a College for boys and a House of Studies for Jesuits. From a diary fragment of Aylmer, we learn that Kenney was Superior of the Irish Mission and Prefect of Studies, Aylmer was Minister, Claude Jautard, a survivor of the old Society in France was Spiritual Father, Butler was Professor of Moral and Dogmatic Theology, Ferley was professor of Logic and Metaphysics, Esmonde was Superior of Scholastics and they were joined by St Leger and William Dinan. Gahan was described as a Missioner at Francis St Dublin and Confessor to the Poor Clares and irish Sisters of Charity at Harold’s Cross and Summerhill. Ryan was a Missioner in St Paul’s, Arran Quay, Dublin. Among the Scholastics, Brothers and Masters were : Brothers Fraser, Levins, Connor, Bracken, Sherlock, Moran, Mullen and McGlade.

Trouble was not long coming. Protestants were upset that the Jesuits were in Ireland and sent a petition was sent to Parliament, suggesting that the Vow of Obedience to the Pope meant they could not have an Oath of Allegiance to the King. In addition, the expulsion of Jesuits from all of Europe had been a good thing. Kenney’s influence and diplomatic skills resulted in gaining support from Protestants in the locality of Clongowes, and a counter petition was presented by the Duke of Leinster on behalf of the Jesuits. This moment passed, but anto Jesuit feelings were mounting, such as in the Orange faction, and they managed to get an enquiry into the Jesuits and Peter Kenney and they appeared before the Irish Chief Secretary and Provy Council. Peter Kenney’s persuasive and oratorical skills won the day and the enquiry group said they were satisfied and impressed.

Over the years the Mission grew into a Province with Joseph Lentaigne as first Provincial in 1860. In 1885 the first outward undertaking was the setting up of an Irish Mission to Australia by Lentaigne and William Kelly, and this Mission grew exponentially from very humble beginnings.

Later the performance of the Jesuits in managing UCD with little or no money, and then outperforming what were known as the “Queen’s Colleges” forced the issue of injustice against Catholics in Ireland in the matter of University education. It is William Delaney who headed up the effort and create the National University of Ireland under endowment from the Government.from the Government.

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973
Father Richard O’Callaghan 1728-1807
Fr Richard O’Callaghan had the distinction of entering the Society before its Suppression, of living right through that sorrowful period, and of rejoining on its Restoration.

He was born in Meath in 1738, and after studying for seven years at the English Seminary of the Society at Seville, he became a Jesuit.

After his ordination he was sent as a missioner to the Philippine Islands where he laboured with great zeal for many years. On one occasion he was wounded by savages and taken prisoner, and only released on the payment of a good ransom.

Shortly before the Suppression he returned to Ireland in 1771, where he worked in the parish of St Michan’s. During the weary years of waiting for the Restoration, he never ceased to pray for that happy event. “To him” says Oliver “his country must be indebted for his honourable and generous efforts for the education of youth and the re-establishment of his brethren”. He was one of the Trustees of the Province Funds. The supreme consolation of his life was the actual renovation of his Vows as a Jesuit in the Restored Society, which he did in the presence of Fr Marmaduke Stone, Superior of the Restored Jesuits in England.

During his ministry at St Michan’s, Fr Richard usually resided with his good friends the Doyle’s at No 76 Upper Church Street Dublin. Attacked by his last illness, the Doyles transferred him to their country house at Cabinteely, where he passed to his reward on June 15th 1807, and is interred in Arcath Cemetery.

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
CALLAGHAN, RICHARD, was born in 1728. After studying for seven years in the English Seminary at Seville, he enlisted under the banner of St. Ignatius : and, I have been told, soon after his promotion to Holy Orders, was sent to the Mission in the Philippine Islands, were he resided several years, and was wounded on one occasion by the Savage Islanders, for his zealous labours in the Gospel. In November, 1771, as I ascertain from one of his letters, he returned to his native country, and, within two years, had to weep over the dissolution of the Society of Jesus. Yet he never lost hopes of its revival : and, to use his own words, he “ever ardently wished for the renovation of his Profession, and without any change of mind in this point”. At the first news of its restoration he hurried to rejoin his ancient colours. To him his country and religion must ever be deeply indebted for his honourable and generous efforts for the education of youth, and the re-establishment of his Brethren. The Venerable Patriarch died at 76, Upper Church-street, Dublin, on the 15th of June, 1807, and was interred in the Chapel of St. George’s hill, but without any inscription. “Sem per honos nomenque tuum laudcsque manebunt”.

◆ Interfuse

Interfuse No 34 : September 1984

PORTRAIT FROM THE PAST : RICHARD O’CALLAGHAN

Roland Burke Savage

A finely-researched article on Father Richard Callaghan (1728 1807), a man described as one of the langely forgotten links between the original & the restored Society of Jesus in Ireland

In the living tradition of the Province Fr Thomas Betagh (1738-1811), has long been revered as the link between the old Irish Mission and what is now the Irish Province; it is true that he was the school master of the majority of the young men who re-founded the Irish Mission but he was by no means the only former Jesuit who inspired them. While not wishing to question the part played by Betagh, I wish to focus attention on the largely forgotten Richard Callaghan; from the facts that I shall record here I contend that Callaghan was the greater benefactor of the Irish Mission. He was the only former Irish Jesuit to renew his solemn profession (May 1803) in the partially restored Society. He was greatly disappointed that Betagh did not join him in doing so; so grieved was he that a certain friction developed between them. To be fair to Betagh it is only right to state his view: be thought the Pope's oral approval to be an insufficier.. foundation for the partial restoration; he held that as the Society was suppressed by an official Brief so its restoration must be grounded on an equally official Brief. In addition as Vicar General to Archbishop Thomas Troy, he was torn by conflicting loyalties.

Richard Callaghan was born in Dublin on 25 September 1728. He made his studies and was ordained a secular priest in the English College, Seville. On 15 January 1753 he entered the Society in Seville for the Philippine Province. On completing his noviceship he set out for Manila where he arrived on 14 July 1755. Unfortunately there are no annual letters covering that period in the Roman archives so the account of his work there is scanty. He spent his first two years repeating his theology in Manila. Then he worked in the islands of the Pintados and the Visayas, on one occasion the natives split his tongue in hatred of the doctrine he taught. In 1768 the Spanish Government ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits in the Philippines; at that time Callaghan was Minister and Missioner in the residence of Barugo in the Island of Leyte, one of the Visayas. From there he boarded the frigate San Carlos bound for Acapulco in Mexico, the first stage on his way back to Italy. Not being a Spaniard, be was not entitled to the pension which the Spanish Governnent paid to the expelled jesuits. Before returning to Dublin he made his profession of the 4 vows in Genoa on 12 January 1771. The autograph of his vow formula is in the Roman archives.

With nine other Jesuits working in the Archdiocese of Dublin, Callaghan formally accepted the Brief of Suppression from Archbishop John Carpenter on 7 February 1774. It may be of interest to cite the document he signed :

    We, the undersigned of the Suppressed Society
of Jesus, anxious to manifest our ready
obedience to the command of the Holiness,
hereby declare that we accept fully and
simply the apostolic Brief suppressing the
Society, and conformable to the tenor of the
Brief, we acknowledge ourselves brought back
to the state and condition of secular priests
under the complete obedience of his
Illustrious and most Reverend Ordinary.

In testimony of which we have signed our
names this seventh day of February 1774.

RICHARD CALLAGHAN

The first signature followed by the remaining eight.

Though later on, as we shall see, Archbishop Carpenter came to recognise the quality of his new subjects, promoting theo to positions of responsibility, he was far from being sympathetic towards them at the outset. To instance this by two examples we may first cite his letter to Dr Nicholas Sweetman, the Bishop of Ferns, who made plain to hin his deep distress of the suppression. Replying to Sweetman, Carpenter lets himself go:

    Why, in the name of wonder, should be aggregate to ourselves the power of judging an affair on
which we have not the least right to pronounce? ................ The Brief, in order to preserve peace
and prevent animosities, has very wisely forbid the entering into any dispute concerning the
suppression, nor can I at all perceive what reasonable end such a controversy would answer.
I must confess that I never received a letter that astonished me so much as your last has
done. It must surely have been written when the storm of passion was up, and calm reason
absent from the helm. for your comfort let me observe to you that the members of the
suppressed Society are now become members of the most perfect and most illustrious body of
men (the order of St. Peter) that ever was or ever will be on the face of the earth, and one
that never has suffered, and never will suffer dissolution or suppression. Reflect on this,
and be pacified and consoled.

Three months earlier (11 December 1773) Carpenter suggested to Cardinal Marefoschi that whatever capital the Irish Jesuits held should be confiscated and given to the Irish Colleges in Europe. In replying Marefoschi said the Irish College in Rome was badly in need of £300. A debt of at least £1,600 was due to the Dublin residence arising from an old mortgage on the estate of Castle Browne; this mortgage Carpenter and his Vicar General Dowdall, took upon themselves to compound with John Browne, then on his death bed, for £300. Browne, a just and religious man, would have paid the Society in full had not his directors decision prevailed. Fullam adds had he not timely alienated the rest of our property, they might have seized upon the whole and left us as beggars.

The rest of the property was not great: somewhat short of £8,000. It remained over from what was left of the property of the Irish College in Poitiers and what remained of the gift of Catherine Breganza destined for a foundation, never made, in Athlone. Were it not for injudicious speculation by the Father in charge of the funds in Paris in 1750's the Irish Mission fund would have been worth much more.

The reader may have wondered what all this has to do with Richard Callaghan. To help him understand what may appear to be an un justifiable degression, in 1793 Callaghan became the custodian of the former Mission Fund.

On the death of John Ward in October 1775 the last Superior of the old Irish Mission, the property devolved on John Fullam. As the remaining fifteen former Jesvits were convinced that one day the Society would be restored, they were anxious to keep the capital intact. Three fathers were chosen to discuss with Fullam how their property was to be dealt with. John Austin, Henry Nowlan and Joseph Halloran. These four proposed that the capital should be untouched and chat from the interest arising from it each should receive an annuity or £50 a year during their lifetime. All accepted this arrangement which continued until Fullam's death in 1793. In his will he named Richard Callaghan as his Executor Callaghan called together the four remaining survivors to discuss the future of the fund. They confirmed Callaghan as the guardian of the fund but instead of allowing themselves 250 a year, they decided, against Callaghan's wishes, that the interest should be divided equally between the five so that they would have money for various charitable purposes. On Fullam's sisters death he willed his personal property should be added to the fund, bringing it up to almost £16,000.

In addition to their decision to make the interest available to then, they discussed the future of the fund. With the revolution in France at its height, the prospect of the restoration of the Society in the immediate future did not appear bright. As their numbers were so few it was necessary to decide what should become of their patrimony. An agreement was signed binding the last three survivors, in the event of the Society not being restored, to consult with some of the Irish Bishops how best the money could be used in endowing some college for the education of secular priests for work in Ireland.

Callaghan was never satisfied with this agreement as he considered it did not sufficiently safeguard the rights of the Society but as things were so unsettled he thought it better to defer the matter.

Though fully occupied by his work as Curate in St. Andrew's (old Townsend Chapel) and in St. Mohan's (Mary's Lane Chapel) he never forgot the possibility of a restored Society; he knew that the Society still had a precarious existence in White Russia depending on the oral approval of the Pope, Pius. A letter written from Leghorn by a former Irish Jesuit, Peter Plunkett, on 1 July 1794 reveals the way he was thinking and what Fullam also had in mind before he died:

    Russia is by no means fit for rearing missioners for your country. Besides the climate which is
intensely rigid and the language which is extremely difficult, the breeding and manners
are somewhat uncouth ............. taste for the pulpit and polite literature neglected.
Consequently, all thought of Russia should be laid aside in my opinion as a place unfit for
those who are not natives and unfit moreover for answering the wishes of our dear friend
(Fullam who from his private means left £50 for 10 years to the Vicar General in White Russia),
Europe is too: unsettled and precarious to think of making new establishments. When peace is declared

I doubt not in the least of seeing the Society also restored at least in some parts of Italy and Spain. This last country I would prefer for putting into execution the intentions of Mr Fullam.

At the request of the Czar Paul I, Pius VII by the decree Catholicae Fidei (7 March 1801) publicly recognised and formally approved of the Society in White Russia. Anticipating a more general restoration Callaghan sent Peter Kenney and three other young men to St. Patrick's College, Carlow on 6 June 1801 to study humanities with å view to preparing them for entry into the Society: these four were followed by seventeen more students whose pensions Callaghan paid from the Mission fund.

Shortly after the election of Pius VII, the gentlenen of Stonyhurst, as they styled themselves, asked the Vicar General, for the second time, to receive them back into the Society. The Vicar, Gruber, thought it better to consult the Pope before doing so. Writing from Leghorn on 21 December 1801, Peter Plunkett told Callaghan that a Brief had been sent to the Court of Moscovey authorizing the Vicar General of the Jesuits there to assume the title of General and to act throughout the whole Russian empire with the full powers annexed to that dignity authorizing him moreover to take under bis inspection and government all the missions of those countries towards the east that bordered on the said empire. He added. that Cardinal Brancadara, who alone the Pope consulted in drawing up the Brief, said: “The Brief is such that you all may well be contented with”.

Gruber, the General, then wrote to England:

I notify your Heverence that I have received from Cardinal Consalyi from Home an explanation of the
Brief concerning the aggregation to us with regard to those outside (ad exteros). The said Cardinal replied
that it was true that the Holy Father in the Brief had restricted our existence. to Russia but by that His Holiness
did not wish to prevent others in non-Catholic or Catholic countries from aggregating to us provided they
did not open new professed houses; suon faculty inheres in the Brief, since without it, it would seem that the
Society could not maintain itself. So the field is open. His Holiness could not reply more clearly.

In March 1803, at William Strickland’s suggestion, Gruber named Marmaduke Stone, a professed father of the old Society, as English Provincial: he commissioned Strickland to admit Stone, the Superior of the gentlemen of Stonyhurst, to solemn profession and then to install him as Provincial of England. Stone took his vows on 22 May 1803 and shortly afterwards he re-admitted six members of the former English Province with Nicholas Grou, the well known spiritual writer and Richard Callaghan who journeyed over from Dublin to Stonyhurst for the ceremony.

Before renewing his profession he told Stone that he had made his will transferring the Mission fund and his own personal property to him whom he had named as trustee for the future Irish Jesuits. Before returning be handed his will to Stone.

Four years later Callaghan died on 15 June 1807 with the reputation of being an outstandingly zealous priest; in 1852, forty-five years after his death he was described as “the great Callaghan”. On hearing of his death Stone and Sewell crossed over to Dublin where Betagh introduced them to an eninent Catholic Attorney named Browne. He advised them to take possession of Callaghan's effects and papers without the slightest risk from his relations in virtue of the will they produced. Browne also advised them to have all the debentures transferred to Stone's name. In an amusing sentence in his letter to Wright, Stone tells how he found £4,000 in cash under the floorboards of Callaghan's sitting room: “it is lucky”, he writes, “that I was made acquainted with Callaghan's secret repository three years ago”.

Both Stone and Sewell were greatly taken by Betagh's kindness and concern for them: they had earlier formed a wrong impression largely because of his failure to rejoin the Society which had so disappointed Callaghan. Betagh told them that he was leaving £200 and his library to Stone in trust for the future Irish Mission, The highlight of their stay was when he brought them to dine with the Doyles of Church Street to meet five Irish Bishops.

When Callaghan's affairs were settled Sewell noted on 30 August 1807 that £30,000 had been lodged with Wright's of London in trust for the future Irish Mission. Callaghan's wisdom in transferring the Mission funds to Stone will become clear in the sequel.

Early in the year of Callaghan's death Archbishop Thomas Troy of Dublin wrote a long letter to Cardinal Di Pietro alleging misappropriation of the funds of the former Irish Jesuits. He asked the Cardinal to write to Stone at Stonyhurst firmly and decisively and “to threaten him with suspension if he does not transfer the funds...”. His agent in Rome, Luke Concannon OP, in a covering
dated 14 July 1807 enclosing Di Pietro's answer, wrote that he thinks “the Jesuits havo outwitted Propaganda and all of you and you'll never get a farthing out of them now..... It is not known whether the Jesuits exist or not in the British Empire; De Pietro believes they do not, but cannot swear to it ... Such an artful and political body of men (as the Jesuits) never existed”.

In an earlier undated letter Concannon expressed amazement at the obstinacy of the old ex-Jesuit Callaghan. Dr Carpenter was too indulgent. Callaghan will now be pleased that the Society survives in the persons of the Abbé O'Connell and the Abbé Plunkett, both ex-Jesuits.

The next move is a letter from Propaganda to Archbishop Troy, dated 23 January 1808, stating that a letter is being sent to Stone about all the ex-Jesuit funds: the Arcbbishop is to forward to Rome all documents relevant to the same. Under the date 5 May 1808. We have a draft reply in which Plowden (the English Master of novices) makes two points succinotly: (1) three former Irish Jesuits are still alive: Fr. Betagh (Dublin), Peter Plunkett (Leghorn) and James Connell (Rome); (2) does the Archbishop wish “to invoke the spiritual power to invalidate the will of a British subject?” This last point is a reference to the statute of Praenunire. There is no evidence in the Dublin diocesan archives of a letter based on Plowden's draft. There is a letter from Concannon, dated 8 October 1808, upbraiding Troy for giving up the Callaghan affair and urging him to take the matter up again with Di Pietro.

Plowden supplies us with the end of the story in a letter, dated 20 November 1808: in it be records that “Archbishop Troy is satisfied that Mr Stone will fairly employ the property in question. Mr Granger says the affair is now closed and settled”. (1) + (2)

(1) To make for easier reading I have deliberately omitted all references as this is meant to be a straightforward popular account.

(2) In his Biographical Dictionary of Irish Jesuits in the old Society, Fr Francis Finegan SJ, in a brief notice of Callaghan states that he was appointed Fidei Commissarius by Archbishop Carpenter. I failed to trace where he got the information so I asked him these two questions, What was the function of Fidei Commissarius? and what was his source for his statement? He said he had forgotten.
I deliberately omitted this matter from text as I have a source for every statement in it.

Interfuse No 47 : Easter 1987

The Suppression in Ireland

Roland Burke Savage

There were sixteen Jesuits working in Ireland when the Society was suppressed. Here's what happened to them and to their money during the forty years of darkness. The story has a happy ending.

Without entering into details about the Suppression it will be enough to recall that the enemies of the Jesuits in Europe, rationalists and free thinkers for the most part, were not satisfied with Pombal's victory in Portugal from where he expelled them in 1759; with Choiseul's dissolution of the Society in France in 1762; or with the deportation of the Jesuits from Spain by Charles III in 1767. What they wanted was the total destruction of the Society as a religious order; relentlessly they pressed forward to achieve their purpose. Clement XIII exerted all his efforts to defend the Jesuits but his successor Clement IIV, four years after his election, yielded to mounting pressure from the Bourbon governments, more especially from Spain. Accordingly, without any judical process, Clement suppressed the Society by the Brief Dominus ac Redemptor dated 21st July, 1773.

of the sixteen Jesuits then working in Ireland, the eleven working in Dublin formally accepted the Brief of Suppression from Dr. Carpenter, Archbishop of Dublin, on 7th February, 1774; four others accepted it in Waterford and the remaining one in Wexford.

John Ward, who had been the superior of the Irish Jesuit nission from 1760 to 1773, was the first of the suppressed Jesuits to die. Shortly after his death in 1775, the remaining fifteen survivors met in Dublin. They elected John Fullam as chairman; all were convinced that the Society would some day be restored and so they drew up an agreement to safeguard the future of the mission fund, sadly depleted some twenty years before by financial failure in France. At that meeting and at a subsequent one on Fullam's death in 1793, they decided to leave their capital intact and to allow each of them and annuity of £50 a year as long as he lived. At Fullam's death the fund stood and £8,650 but it was more than doubled by his leaving his own private money to be added to the fund on the death of his sister. Though he does not appear to have been as well known as Austin or Betagh, he had many staunch friends and admirers among the better-off Catholics who showed their esteem for him by giving him considerable gifts of money from time to time. In some instructions regarding his will he modestly attributed their largesse to their regard for the Society to which he had belonged.

John Austin was born in New Street (then called Austin's Grounds) near Kevin Street, Dublin, on 12th April, 1717. Battersby, the well-known Dublin bookseller and publisher of the directory, tells how young Austin, who went to school near St. Patrick's, one day rattled of impromptu Latin verses to divert some youngsters from butchering a faithful old dog. Being told of these verses and much struck by the talent they displayed, Swift sent for Austin's parents and asked them what they wished to make of the boy. When the Dean heard that they hoped he might become a priest, he told them to send him to the Jesuits who would make a man of him. There is a tradition that the Dean went further by offering to pay some of the expenses involved.

Whether that tradition be true or not, John Austin entered the Society of Jesus at Nancy in the Champagne Province on 27th November, 1735. He studied at Pont-à-Musson in Lorraine, at Rheims where he was ordained priest, and at Poitiers where the Irish Jesuit mission had its only continental college.

In 1750, Austin returned to Dublin to work as an assistant priest in St. Michael's chapel, Rosemary Lane, Though he is best remembered as a great schoolmaster, it is well to recall some of his other activities. Contemporary evidence stresses his immensely energetic and generous disposition; besides his church work, the mass, the confessional and the pulpit, he was tireless in visiting the sick and the poor in the garrets or cellars, constantly giving away all he had. The more prosperous Catholics, knowing his disposition, were liberal in their gifts to him: they knew he kept his door open to all in need.

He was much in demand as a preacher, and may be said to have begun the practice of 'charity sermons' which raised 30 large a part of the revenue for various good works in late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Dublin. A touching proof of the Patrician Orphan Society's gratitude to Austin is found in the silver medallion presented to him on 17th March, 1776, still preserved in Clongowes.

Austin's school in Cook Street quickly established itself as the leading classical academy in the city. Among pupils in its early years were Thomas Betagh, later to return from France as a Jesuit priest to assist him and, after his death, to carry on and extend his work; John O'Keeffe, the dramatist, who tells “how from Greek, Latin and French acquired under Father Austin, to whose school in Cook Street I went, my fancy soon strayed to Shakespeare”.

The dissolution of the Society of Jesus in France in 1762 brought welcome assistance to him by the home coming of James Philip Mulcaile and Thomas Betagh. Mulcaile took up duty in Mary's Lane chapel; in addition to starting an elementary school for boys and help Mary Teresa Mulally to open a small school for girls of the parish in 1766, he taught in Austin's school.

Four years after Mulcaile's return, Thomas Betagh arrived in Dublin. Born on 8th May, 1738, in Kells, Co. Meath, where his father was a tanner, he received his classical education in Austin's school in Cook Street. He entered the Society of Jesus at Nancy on 3rd November, 1754; graduated master of arts at Pont-à-Musson in Lorraine, taught humanities for four years before beginning his theological studies also at Pont-à-Musson and was ordained on 24th May, 1766. In the following year, he began his work as assistant priest in Rosemary Lane. Of all the Jesuits of the old Society his career is the most fully recorded in the newspapers and magazines of the period and in the folklore of old Dubliners, many of whom treasure engravings or busts of him which depict him characteristically as a hunchback.

With Mulcaile and Betagh to help him, Austin was able to expand his school work and moved to a larger house in Saul's Court, off Fishamble Street. He also set up a boarding house to provide for boys from the country; one such was Daniel Murray from Arklow, later to become Archbishop of Dublin. Other pupils included Michael Blake, later bishop of Dromore, William Yore, a future vicar general in Dublin and Charles Stuart, later Provincial of the Augustinians.

Austin died on 29th September, 1784, after a tedious illness. An English traveller visiting Dublin in 1789 was surprised to find a neat and elegant obelisk in St. Kevin's churchyard commemorating a Catholic priest only a few years dead. This obelisk was removed when Dublin Corporation turned St. Kevin's churchyard into a public park; it has now been restored and may be seen inside the main gate on Camden Row.

That Betagh and Mulcaile maintained with success Austin's work is evident from the relatio on the state of his diocese sent to Rome in 1790 by Dr. Patrick Plunkett, bishop of Meath. He reported that there was a remarkable school in Dublin presided over by two secular priests who had belonged to the Society of Jesus and that he had adopted it as a seminary for his diocese.

On Fullam's death the care of the mission fund devolved upon Richard Callaghan who as a young priest had worked for many years in the Philippines where his tongue was slit by one of the islanders in hatred of his faith and zeal. In August, 1793, Callaghan with four other surviving members of the old Society discussed the future of the fund. With the Revolution at its height in France, the prospect of the restoration of the Society in the immediate future did not appear bright; as their numbers were becoming so few it was necessary to determine what should become of their patrimony. An agreement was signed binding the last three surviving members, whoever they should be, in the event of the Society not being restored, to consult with some of the Irish bishops as to how best the money could be employed in endowing some college for the education of secular priests for work in Ireland.

Callaghan was never satisfied with this agreement as he considered it did not sufficiently safeguard the rights of the Society, but as things were so unsettled he thought it better to defer the matter. He knew that the Society still led a precarious existence in White Russia, depending on the oral approval of Pius VI who feared to commit himself in writing.

A happy turn of events brought new hope. At the request of the new Czar, Paul I, Pius VII by the decree Catholicae Fidei (7th March, 1801) publically recognized and formally approved of the Society in White Russia. Anticipating a more general restoration, Callaghan sent Peter Kenney with three other young men to St. Patrick's College, Carlow, on 6th June, 1801, to study humanities with a view to preparing them for entry into the Society: these four were followed by seventeen more students, whose pensions Callaghan paid from the mission fund.

-oOo-

Events now took another turn. On the suppression of the Society the English Jesuits were allowed to continue their college in Liège as an academy for the education of secular priests for the English mission and for a certain number of lay boys. In 1786, while living as secular priests in community, they petitioned the vicar general in Russia to receive them into the Society; the vicar had to refuse their request as his jurisdiction was confined to Jesuits living in White Russia. Eight years later, on the outbreak of the revolutionary wars in the Netherlands, they crossed to England with their students and established themselves at Stonyhurst near Blackburn, Lancashire, put at their disposal by Thomas Weld of Lulworth Castle, Dorset.

Shortly after the election of Pius VII, the gentlemen of Stonyhurst, as they were styled, again asked the vicar general to receive them back into the Society. The vicar, Gruber, thought it better to consult the Pope before doing so. Writing from Leghorn on 21st December, 1801, Peter Plunkett told Callaghan that a Brief had been sent to the Court of Moscovy authorizing the vicar general of the Jesuits there to assume the title of general and to act throughout the whole Russian empire with the full powers annexed to that dignity; authorizing him moreover to take under his inspection and government all the missions of those countries towards the east that bordered on the said empire. He added that Cardinal Brancadara, whom alone the Pope consulted in drawing up the Brief, said: "The Brief, he assured, is such that you all may well be contented with'. Plunkett then suggested that there should be no difficulty in getting privately a Brief to cover England and Ireland. He added, however, that James Connell, also a former Irish Jesuit and then secretary to Cardinal Rinuncini in Rome, consulted Brancadara who advised seeking a Brief for Ireland alone as the vicars apostolic in England were hostile to the Jesuits.

In March, 1803, at William Strickland's suggestion, Gruber named Marmaduke Stone, a professed father of the old Society, as English Provincial: he commissioned Strickland to admit Stone, the Superior of the Stonyhurst community, to solemn profession of the four vows and then to install him as Provincial of England.

Stone took his vows on 22nd May, 1803, and shortly afterwards he re-admitted six members of the former English Province, with Nicholas Grou, the well-known spiritual writer, and Richard Callaghan who had journeyed over to Stonyhurst for the ceremony.

Before renewing his profession, Callaghan told Stone that he had made a will transferring the Irish Jesuit mission fund and his own personal property to him whom he had named as trustee for the future Irish Jesuits.

On hearing of Callaghan's death, Stone and Sewell crossed over to Dublin on 25th July, 1807, where Betagh introduced him to an eminent Catholic attorney named Brown who advised them to take possession of Callaghan's effects and papers without the smallest risk in virtue of the will they produced. Brown also advised them to have all the debentures transferred to Stone's name. In an amusing sentence in his letter to Wright, Stone tells how he found £4,000 in cash under the floorboards: “it is lucky that I was made acquainted with Callaghan's secret repository three years ago”.

When Callaghan's affairs were settled Sewell noted on 30th August, 1807, that £30,000 had been lodged in England for the benefit of the future Irish mission.

Early in the same year Archbishop Troy wrote a long letter to Cardinal di Pietro alleging misappropriation of the funds of the former Irish Jesuits. He asked the Cardinal to write to Stone at Stonyhurst “firmly and decisively” and “to threaten him with suspension if he does not transfer the funds... He (Troy) has always been friendly with the Jesuits, giving them parishes and appointing one his vicar general (Father Betagh)”.

His agent in Rome, Father Luke Concannon, OP, in a covering letter dated 14th July, 1807, enclosing Cardinal di Pietro's answer, wrote that he thinks “the Jesuits have outwitted Propaganda and all of you and you'll never get a farthing out of them now.. It is not known whether the Jesuits exist or not in the British Empire; di Pietro believes they do not, but cannot swear to it... Such an artful and political body of men (as the Jesuits) never existed”.

In an earlier undated letter, Concannon expressed amazement at the obstinancy of the old ex-Jesuit, Fr. Callaghan. Dr. Carpenter (Dr. Troy's predecessor as Archbishop of Dublin) was too indulgent. Callaghan will now plead that the Society survives in Rome in the persons of the Abbé O'Connell and the Abbe Plunkett, both ex-Jesuits'.

The next move is a letter from Propaganda to Archbishop Troy dated 23rd January, 1808, stating that a letter is being sent to Stone about all the Irish ex-Jesuit funds; the archbishop is to forward to Rome all documents relevant to same. Under the date 5th May, 1808, we have a draft reply to Archbishop Troy written by Plowden in which he makes two points succinctly: (1) three former Irish Jesuits still alive: Fr. Betagh (Dublin), Peter Plunkett (Leghorn) and James Connell (Rome). (2) Does the archbishop wish “to invoke the spiritual power to invalidate the will of a British subject?”. This last sentence is a reference to the statute of Praemunire.

There is no evidence in the Dublin diocesan archives of the letter based on Plowden's draft; there is a letter from Concannon dated 8th October, 1808, upraiding Troy for giving up the Callaghan affair (the ex-Jesuit funds) and urging him to take the matter up again with Cardinal di Pietro.

Plowden supplies us with the end of the story in a letter dated November 20th; in it he records that “Archbishop Troy is satisfied that Mr. Stone will fairly employ the property in question. Mr. Granger says that the affair is now closed and settled”.

-oOo-

To complete the restoration of the Society in England, Stone founded a noviciate at Hodder Place about a mile from Stonyhurst. Here on 26th September, 1804, Peter Kenney with four other Irishmen and seven Englishmen began their noviceship with Charles Plowden as their master. Tempting though it be to follow Kenney through Hodder, Stonyhurst and Palermo where he was ordained, the aim of these pages rules this out: the starting point must be his return to Dublin on 1st September, 1811, six months after Betagh's death. In his Palermo journal he had recorded, “God forbid that I should ever be a Superior, especially over the Irish”; before setting out for Dublin, however, he found himself appointed Superior by the Provincial of Sicily, later to be confirmed by the General in Russia. On arrival in Dublin, he learned that Stone held £32,000 for him in trust to rebuild the Irish mission.

Foremost in Kenney's mind from the outset was the setting up of a boarding school but he knew that he would have to wait for the arrival of the second batch of his confrères not due to finish their studies in Palermo until the summer of 1814. Stone wrote to him early in 1812 to tell him that he met Dr. Moylan in London who 'would welcome a college in Cork and (he) though that Dr. Power in Waterford'. Even before this Kenney, knew that Dr. Plunkett, Bishop of Meath, would also be glad to have him in Meath.

Meanwhile he lost no time in settling into other work while his plans matured. First he lodged in the house in Cook Street where Betagh had lived and before long he moved across the Liffey to No. 3, George's Hill to Mulcaile's old home. He gave his attention to what was near at hand: helping the nuns in George's Hill with conferences and advice, hearing confessions in St. Michan's, preaching there and in other city churches.

Kenney was not long in Dublin before Dr. Troy asked him to become vice president of Maynooth, as Dr. Everard, the president, had become seriously unwell. For many reasons Kenney was slow to accept this responsible position, especially as he was not twelve months back in Ireland: in the end he agreed to act for the academic year 1812-13, on condition that Dr. Troy's coadjutor Dr. Daniel Murray held the presidency.

In the autumn of 1813, Kenney began negotiations with General Michael Wogan Browne for Castle Browne which he had inherited on the death of his brother; as the estate was heavily in debt he was anxious to find a purchaser for the house and some of the land. Situated some twenty miles west of Dublin near the village of Clane, co. Kildare, Castle Browne seemed suitable for Kenney's purpose. Daniel O'Connell, always cautious in questions of title, was fully satisfied that the property was confirmed by letters patent of King Charles II. Long before the deal was completed, the anti-Catholic faction raised hue and cry. Despite it, Kenney was satisfied to buy the house and 219 acres for £16,000. The deed of conveyance from Browne to Kenney was signed on 4th March, 1814. Kenney's sharpened sense of history led him to deem that day Founders' Day, as the purchase was made possible for the foresight and generosity of his predecessors.

Hansard recorded in full detail a debate in the House of Commons on 17th May, 1814, initiated by Sir John Cox Hippsely who asserted that it had come to his knowledge that nearly £30,000 had been remitted from Rome to Ireland for the purpose of purchasing lands. Sir Henry Parnell told the House that Mr. Kenney had put into his hands the prospectus of his establishment; the whole object which it aimed at was neither more nor less than the education of young persons; it did not even exclude those the Protestant religion. Sir Henry Newport, MP for Waterford, said that he had looked into the statute book and could not see what objection could be raised against the conduct of Mr. Kenney.

Replying to the debate, Robert Peel told the Commons that he had interviewed Mr. Kenney and had received from him the prospectus of his school. The only point Kenney refused to divulge was how he came by the money which he asserted was his private property. Peel told him that he must not be surprised if the same feeling which had induced the British Government to confiscate the property of the Jesuits in Canada should induce them at least to watch with the utmost diligence and suspicion an institution established and superintended by one of the order, supported by funds, the origin and nature of which were totally unaccounted for.

The debate is best summed up in an entry in Charles Abbot's Diary under the date 23rd May, 1814:

“Peel called by appointment... talked over the foundation of the school at Clongrove (sic) Wood, late Castle Browne, Kenney's conversation with him asserting the £16,000 to be his own funds, though how obtained he refused to disclose; and that when his vow of poverty was objected to him in bar of his being the proprietor of such funds, he said the vow was only simple not solemn. To all questions he generally answered by putting some other questions instead of giving an affirmative or negative”.

On 18th May, 1814, Clongowes Wood College received its first pupil, James MacLorinan, of Dublin.

O'Mahony, Conor, 1594-1656, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1923
  • Person
  • 1594-28 February 1656

Born: 1594, Muskerry, County Cork
Entered: 17 March 1621, Portugal - Lusitaniae Province (LUS)
Ordained: 21 December 1619, Seville, Spain - pre Entry
Final vows: 16 August 1636
Died: 28 February 1656, Professed House, Lisbon, Portugal - - Lusitaniae Province (LUS)

Alias Cornelio de San Patricio

Had studied 3 years Theology at Seville before Ent
1625 At Irish College Lisbon, Prefect of Theologians and Philosophers
21628 Teaches Theology at College of St Miguel, Azores
1633-1636 A Master of Arts, now teaching Casus at Évora
1639 At Irish College Lisbon teaching Moral and Scholastic Theology
1642-1656 At Professed House Lisbon, Confessor, Concinator, Teaching Moral and Special Theology
Published “Disputatio de Regno Apologetica Hibernia”. This was republished by Trinity College to incite odium against Catholics and prevent their emancipation (Foley 476)

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Writer; Professor of Theology at Évora and elsewhere; described as very brave and pious; was a great light in Moral Theology in Lisbon (“Annales” Franco). A celebrated man of his day.
He rendered great service during an earthquake and eruption in San Miguel, Angra, Azores
Harris “Writers of Ireland”, where he mentions that he published under the name Constantine Marullus “Disputatio apologetica et manifestiva de jure Regni Hibern : pro Catholicis Hibernis adversarus haereticos Anglos”, quarto, Frankfort, 1645. Book 1, p 121. Harris was bitter against him, and gravely asserts that Gregory XIII, who had then been dead and buried for fifty-seven years, granted a Bull in 1642 to Owen Roe
(cf Gilbert’s “History of Affairs in Ireland” part ii pp 668 and 739; Foley’s Collectanea - where he is called Constantine or Conon O’Mahony )

Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Had studied and was Ordained at Irish College Seville 21 December 1619 before Ent 17 March 1621 Portugal (While he was still engaged in his studies he was expelled from the College but received back after he had expressed repentance for his fault) Then he Entered a year later in Portugal.
Once he Entered in Portugal he used the name “Cornelio de San Patricio”
After First Vows Sent as Prefect of Studies to Irish College Lisbon
1626 Sent to the Azores as Professor of Moral Theology at San Miguel, Angra, quickly establishing a high reputation throughout Portugal. During the 1630 earthquake at San Miguel, he showed resourcefulness and courage in bringing help and consolation to those rendered homeless by the disaster.
1633-1639 Sent to Évora to teach Moral Theology. He had graduated MA - but unclear if this was in Spain or Portugal.
1639-1642 Sent to Irish College Lisbon to teach Moral Theology
1642 Operarius at the Professed House in Lisbon, where he died 28 February 1656
His celebrated book “Disputatio Apologetica et Manifestativa de Iure Regni Hiberniae pro Catholicia Hibernis adversus Haereticos Anglos ” possibly makes him considered as the first Irish “separatist” of modern times. This book was circulated in Lisbon, but bears the name of a non existent publisher in Frankfurt. The book was denounced by João IV of Portugal, an ally of England. O’Mahony proposed that the solution to Irelands problems might be the election of a King of old Irish stock, and also urged war to the death of all English Protestants in the country. The thesis of the book was used by the Confederation of Kilkenny to attack the position of Eoin Ruadh. It was a century and a half later, with Wolfe Tone and the United Irishmen before this thesis was proposed again. O’Mahony’s book was reissued in Dublin in 1826 by those who wished to raise anger against the Catholic Church and the Emancipation movement.

◆ Royal Irish Academy : Dictionary of Irish Biography, Cambridge University Press online :
O'Mahony, Conor
by Tadhg Ó hAnnracháin

O'Mahony, Conor (1594–1656), Jesuit academic and author, was a native of Muskerry, west Co. Cork. Little of his early life is known until his entrance into the Irish College at Seville, probably in 1614, where he studied philosophy and theology for three and four years respectively, ultimately graduating as master of arts and doctor of divinity. He was admitted to minor orders on 7 June 1618 and was ordained a priest on 21 December 1619. The following year he was almost expelled from the college for unspecified misdemeanours. In 1621 he entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus in Lisbon and took the name ‘Cornelius a Sancto Patricio’. In and around 1626 he went to the college of San Miguel in the Azores, where he was to spend seven years as professor of moral theology. He is also recorded as having performed great service to the victims of an earthquake and eruption at Ponta Delgada in 1630. O'Mahony held the chair of moral theology at the university of Evora (1633–5), and in 1636, the year of his final profession as a Jesuit, was transferred to Lisbon, where he became professor of dogmatic theology for five years.

The experience of living in Portugal during the Braganza revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs and, almost certainly, personal acquaintance with several of the Jesuit scholars who provided intellectual justification for the Braganza position, were of critical importance in conditioning his own reaction to rebellion in Ireland and the formation of the Confederate Catholic Association in 1642. In 1645 he published in Lisbon the text on which his historical reputation rests, the Disputatio apologetica de iure regni Hiberniae pro catholicis Hibernis adversus haereticos Anglos, a two-part work consisting of a ‘disputatio’ and an ‘exhortatio’.

O'Mahony's purpose was to demonstrate that the ‘Hiberni’, a generic term which he used to denote all the catholics of the island, had the right to reject the authority of the monarchs of England over Ireland. In the ‘disputatio’ he first rehearsed a series of arguments which might be advanced to legitimise English authority, and then proceeded to attack them. His arguments were intensely legalistic and the historical underpinning was somewhat weak. The second part of the ‘disputatio’ was relatively stronger. It adapted the work of Bellarmine, Suarez, and Molina to build a case that, even if English monarchs had once legitimately ruled over Ireland, the Irish retained the right to eliminate their authority because of the lapse into heresy of Charles I and his two predecessors. The ‘exhortatio’ that followed, drawing heavily on biblical example, urged the Irish people to choose a new catholic and native monarch and to eliminate all the remaining heretics in the island.

Although emotional resonances with O'Mahony's book can be detected in some manuscript material produced after the rebellion of 1641, it received almost no public support among the audience for which it was avowedly written, the Confederate Catholics of Ireland. The book ran counter to the dominant current in Irish catholic political ideology, which stressed the legitimacy of Stuart rule. In 1645, the year of its publication, even the clerical convocation, the most militant group within the association, dismissed out of hand the idea that Charles was not the confederates’ legitimate king. Radical catholics within the association opted to refer to the confederate oath of association to justify their objectives, rather than to O'Mahony's dangerously divisive argumentation. Moreover, the frank approbation in the ‘exhortatio’ for the killing of 150,000 protestants since the initial rebellion was particularly unwelcome to the great mass of the Confederate Catholic leadership, who wished to avoid any link to the alleged massacres of 1641. The confederate executive ordered that copies of the book should be burned by the common hangman, and evidence has survived that the city of Galway independently expressed its abhorrence for the book and its author. Peter Walsh (qv) is also said to have preached nine sermons against the book in Kilkenny.

Although it attracted little support in Ireland, O'Mahony's text did contribute to the divisions that racked the confederate association in the later years of the decade. It was feared in some quarters that his book was intended to provide the theoretical underpinning to an attempt by Owen Roe O'Neill (qv) to wrest the sovereignty of Ireland from the Stuart monarchy. O'Mahony's work also increased the difficulties of the papal nuncio Rinuccini (qv), who was suspected of plotting to establish papal suzerainty over Ireland and who was accused in Rome by Sir Kenelm Digby of tolerating the Disputatio apologetica. Rinuccini may also have refused to hand John Bane, a parish priest in Athlone, over to secular justice after he was discovered with a copy of the book in his possession. For his part the papal nuncio related some of the hysteria evoked by the text to the fears of secular landowners that O'Mahony's arguments might be used to delegitimise their continued possession of former monastic property. The divisive effect of the book seems to have been heightened by the general lack of knowledge concerning the true identity of its author. This may well have been a conscious decision on the part of O'Mahony, as the title page of the book gave a bogus place of publication. Alternatively, the reference to Frankfurt as the place of publication in the title imprint may have been a device to escape the attentions of the Portuguese censor.

As it transpired, the efforts of the English ambassador, Sir Henry Compton, resulted in two separate condemnations of the text in Portugal on 6 April and 5 December 1647, although no action seems to have been taken against O'Mahony. In the post-confederate period the Irish Jesuit did reveal himself as the text's author to Patrick Plunkett (qv), bishop of Ardagh. Having been in good health, he died suddenly 28 February 1656 at the Jesuit House in Lisbon.

After his decease, copies of the Disputatio were never common: the authors of the Commentarius Rinuccinianus, for instance, had never seen the text but it did enter into later Irish protestant mythology. In 1689 Richard Cox (qv) described it as ‘a most treasonable and scandalous book’ and observed that it was not publicly condemned by the congregation of catholic clergy in Dublin in 1666. A small number of copies of the work were reprinted, apparently in 1826, probably as part of the campaign against catholic emancipation.

Peter Walsh, The history and vindication of the loyal formulary of Irish remonstrance (1674); Edward Borlase, The history of the Irish rebellion (1680); Richard Cox, Hibernia Anglicana: or the history of Ireland from the conquest thereof by the English to the present time (1689); G. Aiazzi, Nunziatura in Irlanda di Monsignor Gio. Baptista Rinuccini arcivescovo di Fermo negli anni 1645 à 1649 (1844); Records of the English province of the Society of Jesus, vii, pt ii (1883); Stanislaus Kavanagh (ed.), Commentarius Rinuccianus, de sedis apostolicae legatione ad foederatos Hiberniae catholicos per annos 1645–9 (6 vols, 1932–49); J. P. Conlon, ‘Some notes on the Disputatio apologetica’, Bibliog. Soc. Ire., vi, no. 5 (1955), 66–77; P. Ó Fionnagáin, ‘Conor O'Mahony, S.J. (1594–1656): separatist’, O'Mahony Journal, xvi (1993), 3–15; Tadhg Ó hAnnracháin, ‘ “Though hereticks and politicians should misinterpret their goode zeal”: political ideology and catholicism in early modern Ireland’, Jane Ohlmeyer (ed.), Political thought in seventeenth-century Ireland: kingdom or colony (2000), 155–75

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973
Father Cornelius O’Mahony SJ 1594-1656
Constantine O’Mahony was born at Muskerry County Cork and became a Jesuit in 1621. When his formation was complete, he professed Philosophy at Lisbon.

In 1645 he published his “Disputatio Apologetica et Manifestiva de Iure Regni Hiberniae pro Catolicis Hibernis Adversus Hereticos Angles”. It was published under the pen name Constantine Marillus. The thesis of the book was that the supreme authority of a nation lies in the representatives of the people, the teaching of St Robert Bellarmine and Suarez. The book gave great offence to the Supreme Council at Kilkenny, and had the distinction of being publicly burnt in the market place of the same town. It was reprinted in Dublin in 1827, 100 copies. The book is singled out for special mention and attack by Hector McPherson in his book called “England’s Fight with the Papacy” in the chapter entitled “The Jesuits in History”. McPherson says that O’Mahony was regarded as “a great light in moral Theology in Lisbon, according to Roman Catholic circles”. Harris in his “Writers of Ireland (p121) describes O’Mahony as “a Jesuit of most virulent temper”. However, we are warned by Oliver and his colleagues, that Harris’ opinion of the author and his work must be received with caution – “much is heavily grounded on hearsay evidence”.

Fr O’Mahony was often called Cornelius a Santo Patricio. He was alive in 1650 at Lisbon, though very old

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
MAHONY, CONSTANTINE, born at Muskerry, in the County of Cork,and often called “Cornelius a Sancto Patritio” Harris, p. 121, Book I, of the writers of Ireland, describes him as “a Jesuit of a most virulent temper”, and says that he published a book under the feigned name of Constantine Marullus, entitled, “Disputatio Apologetica et Manifestiva de Jure Regni Hiberniae pro Catolicis Hibernis adversus Haereticos Anglos”, 4to. Frankfort, 1645. Harris’s character of the work and of its author must be read with caution : much is evidently grounded on the hearsay of enemies. One assertion, that Pope Gregory XIII, had granted to Owen Rowe O’Neil a Bull in 1642, “whereby all the actors in the bloody massacre of the foregoing year are blessed”, is the compound of the vilest absurdity and most atrocious falsehood. That good old Pope had been honestly dead and buried 57 years before the appearance of this Irish Bull. F. Mahony was still living in 1650, at Lisbon, but far advanced in years.

Pichardo, Augustine, d 1744, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/1985
  • Person
  • d 15 February 1744

Died: 15 February 1744, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

◆ Old/18 has “Pihardo” (2nd founder of Irish College Seville) RIP 15 February 1744 Seville (BAE)

Roche, John, 1592-1624, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2045
  • Person
  • 1592-10 April 1624

Born: 1592, Ireland
Entered: 1619, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: Seville, Spain - pre Entry
Died: 10 April 1624, Cadiz, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

1622 At Seville studying Theology Age 30 Soc 3

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Had studied at the Irish College Seville and was Ordained there before Ent 1619 Seville
1621-1622 After First Vows he was sent to San Hermengildo at Seville to continue studies
1622-1623 Sent as Spiritual Father to Irish College Seville. He was already suffering from Consumption, and so given permission by Fr General to return to Ireland in October 1623
1623 For the next few months he waited for a ship to Ireland but when at last he was on board, the ship was forced back by a storm and he died shortly afterwards at Cadiz, 10 April 1624
His obituary notice which is extant mentions his exemplary life both as a student at the Irish College and as a Jesuit. He had shown outstanding ability in his studies and was mature in all the virtues.

Rochford, Laurence, 1606-1649, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2063
  • Person
  • 1606-19 December 1649

Born: 1606, County Wexford
Entered: 02 February 1634, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: - pre Entry
Died: 19 December 1649, Wexford Residence

1636 At Irish College Seville - presides over disputaciones of the students
1637-1639 At Irish College Seville Consultor, Admonitor, Spiritual Father, Prefect and Superintendent of the Theologians and Philosophers

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
1634 In BAE (Irish Ecclesiastical Record)
1636 At Seville, February, was Prefect of Conference and Confessor
1638 Came to Irish Mission from Spain and stationed at Wexford
A joint letter from him and Oliver Eustace in favour of Dr French is at Trinity College.

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Was probably already a priest when he went to Irish College Seville 15 August 1630. He was a very brilliant student and in 1632 and 1633 was chosen to represent the College in the public disputations conducted in the city at the College of San Hermengildo. According to the Diario of the College, he had finished his studies with credit before Ent 02 February 1634 Seville
1636-1637 After First Vows he returned to Irish College Seville as Spiritual Father and Prefect of the public Oratory
1637 Given permission to be sent to Ireland and Wexford, for which he had volunteered where he spent all of his working life in Ireland, teaching Humanities and as Operarius
His date of death 19 December 1649 is somewhat dubious, as he is not mentioned in the Visitor Mercure Verdier’s exhaustive Catalogue of the Mission dated 24 June 1649

Shee, Simon, 1706-1773, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2114
  • Person
  • 28 May 1706-16 May 1773

Born: 28 May 1706, County Kilkenny
Entered: 28 January 1726, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 09 January 1735, Seville, Spain
Final Vows: 17 March 1742, Clonmel
Died: 16 May 1773, Waterford Residence

Final Vows made at Clonmel to Fr Thos A Hennessy

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Described as a brilliant scholar and sound divine.
1738 Sent to Ireland from Seville and to Waterford
1752 & 1755 In Waterford and was a distinguished Preacher
(Curiously all his dates are the same as those of Michael Cawood in the HIB Catalogues of 1752 and 1755.)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Nephew of Patrick Shee, Bishop of Ossory
1728-1735 After First Vows he was sent for studies to Granada and then San Hermenegildo's Seville where he was Ordained 09 January 1735
1735-1738 After Tertianshipat Baéza he was sent as Operarius to Granada
1738 Sent to Ireland and Kilkenny, but because of the dispute between Bishop O'Shaughnessy and the PP (a brother of Simon’s) he was sent to the Waterford Residence, where he worked until 1759
1759 Sent to Cork, but returned to Waterford a year later and remained there until his death, which occurred suddenly while preaching a Sunday evening sermon at St Patrick’s 16 May 1773

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
SHEA, SIMON, of Leinster, was born on the 18th of May, 1706; joined the Order in the Province of Seville, on the 28th of January, 1726, and commenced his Missionary career in Ireland, twelve years later. He was Professed on the 17th of March, 1742. Waterford was the theatre of his zeal, where he was admired as a Preacher. He was living in 1755.

Sweetman, Jerome, 1634-1683, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2168
  • Person
  • 30 September 1634-07 October 1683

Born: 30 September 1634,County Meath / County Dublin
Entered: 15 August 1652, Villagarcía, Galicia, Spain - Castellanae Province (CAST)
Ordained: 1659, Salamanca, Spain
Final Vows: 15 August 1669
Died: 07 October 1683, Talavera de la Reina, Castile-La Mancha, Spain - Toletanae Province (TOLE)

1655 At Compostella Age 22 Soc 3. Studying 3rd year Philosophy.
1660 At Pamplona College as Minister. Good talent and judgement
1665-1672 At Oviedo CAST teaching Grammar and Minister
1675 Not in Catalogue
Taught Philosophy and Theology at Ávila (no dates)

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
1674 Procurator of Irish Mission, Madrid
Names in a letter of Christopher Mendoza, Madrid dated c 1675 -He was procurator at Madrid (A Copy at the Archives de l’État, Brussels, is given in “Collectio Cardwelli” Vol iii Oliver, Stonyhurst MSS)
Accused by Titus Oates and mentioned in the false narrative (cf : “Records SJ” Vol v, pp 97 seq)
Mentioned occasionally in the “Note and Letter-book” of Father John Warner, ANG Provincial, and now in the Cambridge Public Library.
His letters are in Salamanca

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
1654-1659 After First Vows he was sent for studies first to Compostella and then Salamanca where he was Ordained 1659
1659-1664 Sent as Minister and teaching Humanities at Pamplona and then Oviedo
1665-1669 Rector Irish College Santiago. He was known also to conduct parish missions from there.
1669-1672 Taught Moral Theology at Oviedo and later at Avilá.
1672-1682 General appoints him as Rector at Irish College Seville, at the request of the students, but he pleaded his indifferent health against acceptance of the post. Instead, on the representations of the Superior of the Irish Mission, Jerome was appointed Procurator of the mission and of the Irish Colleges (Santiago, Salamanca, and Seville) at Madrid, and against the opposition of the Provincial of TOLE
1682 Out of the blue he was commanded by a Royal Decree to leave Spain forthwith. The charges against him cannot now be specified but it can be surmised that the sum of his offence had something to do with his success in winning financial help for the Mission and Colleges to the (alleged) detriment of the Spanish Jesuits establishments. Protests and memorials from the Irish in Spain failed to move the King. The General pronounced him innocent of the charges and arranged for him to settle in the province of Portugal. He died on his way there at Talavera 07 October 1683

Sweetman, Leonard, 1708-1751, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/416
  • Person
  • 01 August 1708-07 December 1751

Born: 01 August 1708, Dublin
Entered: 29 May 1724, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 29 May 1733, Granada, Spain
Final Vows: 15 August 1742, Clonmel
Died: 07 December 1751, Antequera, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

1742 Makes Profession of 4 Vows at Clonmel before Fr Thomas Hennessy, his Superior and teacher of Irish
At Clongowes are many of his books marked “Lenardus Sweetman SJ Res Dublin”. Seems to have been a learned man of scientific and antiquarian tastes. In Nary’s “History of the World” he writes - Leonardus Sweetman, SOoc IHS Resid Dublin, emit an 1738”

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Passed a brilliant course of Philosophy and Divinity at Granada
1734 Dean at Seville College
1735 Sent to Ireland (Dr McDonald’s letter to Hogan)
1750 At Dublin Residence (in a book in Clongowes - Leonard Sweetman, Res Dublin SJ)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Son of James of Dunboyne and Punchestown
Early education was at the Dublin Jesuit School under Milo O’Byrne and Michael Murphy, before Ent 29 May 1724 Seville
1726-1733 After First Vows he was sent to Granada for studies and was Ordained there 29 May 1733
1733-1734 Made Tertianship at Granada
1734-1735 Sent as Minister to Irish College Seville
1735-1742 Sent to Ireland and the Jesuit School in Dublin
1742-1746 Sent back to Spain for health reasons, and proposed for a Chair in Philosophy at Granada
1746-1748 Sent to teach Moral Theology at Cadiz, but had to retire for health reasons
1749 Tried to accept a Chair in Philosophy at Córdoba, but he was not able for it and retired to Antequera, where he died 07 December 1751
His carta necrologica mentioned his devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and he may well have been the first Jesuit to have introduced the devotion to Dublin
He had never wanted to leave Ireland and go to Spain, but his physical frailty made the rigours of Ireland in penal times impossible for him. So it was the Mission Superior, Thomas Hennessy, who made the decision for him.

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973

Father Leonard Sweetman 1708-1751
Father Leonard Sweetman was born in Dublin of a pious and distinguished family in 1708. He received his early education from the Jesuits. From his early youth he showed great signs of holiness, so that he was known among his companions as “the little Jesuit”. At the age of sixteen he entered the noviceship of St Louis at Seville.

Having completed his third year probation he was sent back to Ireland, where he laboured with extraordinary zeal and amid great hardships. He won back many heretics to the fold. On August 15th he made his solemn vows at Clonmel. On the same day, an order reached him from Fr General Francis Retz, recalling him to Spain. Whereupon he immediately set out for the port of embarkation, Waterford, with no other luggage than his breviary and the clothes he stood up in.

In Spain he professed Philosophy and Theology until his health broke down, and e then devoted himself to Aposotolic work. He wrought numerous conversions among the Protestant merchants of Cadiz. He died at the age of 43 in Antequera in Andalusia, on December 7th 1751. He was always remarkable for his devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Our Lady.

Tyrrey, Francis, 1610-1666, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2197
  • Person
  • 03 October 1610-03 May 1666

Born: 03 October 1610, County Cork
Entered: 30 September 1631, Tournai, Belgium - Belgicae Province (BELG)
Ordained: c 1639, Avignon, France
Final vows: 06 February 1653
Died: 03 May 1666, Cork City

Parents Robert and Ellen Sarsfield
Studied Humanities in Ireland and Philosophy at Douai
1639 At Avignon College Age 28 Soc 8 teaching Grammar and studying Theology
1649 Given at Cork
1650 CAT DOB 1607 Cork. Came to Mission 1640, Prof of 4 Vows. Taught Humanities. Superior of Residence for 2 years. Preacher and now a Missioner.
1666 CAT Is in Connaught, then living near Cork. Consultor of the Mission. Giving Missions, administering the Sacraments, Catechising and Preaching. 28 years on the Mission

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Brother of Dominic, Viscount of Limerick, whose descendant is the Spanish Marquis de Canada (cf Louis Power Esq below)

He studied Humanities and two years Philosophy and four Theology at Avignon before Ent 30 September 1631. He knew Irish, English, French and Latin.
1636 Prefect of the Conference and Confessor at Irish College Seville 07 February 1636
1640 Sent to Ireland. Taught Humanities for five years, was a Preacher and Confessor for eight, Superior of Waterford Residence for two, and a Missioner in Cork for 10 (HIB Catalogue 1650 - ARSI)
Mercure Verdier - Visitor to Irish Mission - describes him as an eminent Preacher, very prudent, learned and zealous in maintaining religious discipline. He was alive in Ireland 1659 (Oliver, Stonyhurst MSS)
1666 He was Superior in Waterford, though living in Cork and engaged on the Mission there (HIB Catalogue 1666 - ARSI) Eloquent, learned and zealous.

Louis Power Esq writes from Gibraltar :
There is a family here of Irish descent, of the name Terry. Different members of it emigrated to Spain from about the date of the non-fulfilment of the Treaty of Limerick, by iniquitous Government of William II, to about the middle of the last century. One of the family, Irish born, came as Minister to London from the Spanish Court, about the later end of the reign of Philip V (the first Bourbon monarch). He was known as the Marquis de la Canada. Of this family two were Fathers of the Society of Jesus, and one died during the siege of Limerick. From the same father as this priest descend my friends whose pedigree I have been allowed to examine - it is a translation of the original English, obtained from the Herald’s Office Dublin, which the member of the family who emigrated to Spain towards between 1755 to 1765 brought with him to Malaga. Its genuineness is beyond dispute...
This family was connected with the Villiers family (of the famous Dukes of Buckingham), though Sarah Villiers, sister of the Duke, who married into the Sarsfield (the French-Irish Brigade Earl of Lucan), and had large estates near Cork, some of which now belong to the Stackpoole family.
1505-1511, 1511-1519 and 1525, William, Edward, Patrick, David and William Terry respectively Governors of Cork; 1514 and 1529 Edmund and Patrick Terry were chief magistrates in Cork, and 1538-1588 and 1591, William, Richard, Dominic, Richard, William, Stephen, Edmund and David were all respectively Sherriffs of Cork. 1604-1625 Edmund, David, Dominic, David, Patrick, William and David were Mayor of Cork.
William, the Sherriff in 1554 was descended from Richard de Terry, who temp. Henry II, married Elizabeth, sister of the Earl of Desmond. This William was one of the twenty-four notables who on 18/07/1574 signed a declaration against Elizabeth I, to sustain the Catholic religion, pledging themselves, in spite of risk and forfeiture to carry out their engagement.
Dominic Terry died in defence of Limerick against the rebel Parliament. He has a brother (not named in the genealogical table) a Priest SJ, who suffered for the faith along with Galfrido Galway (Godfrey Galway) a Catholic gentleman. This Father appears also to have been at the time on King Charles I side in Limerick. All its members have suffered much for the faith and the Stuarts.
There are now in Spain, two branches of this family left, one represented by the Marquis de Canada, who signs his name Tirry, instead of Terry, and another, a wealthy banker in Cadiz.

◆ Francis Finegan SJ :
Son of Robert and Elinor née Sarsfield
Had studied Philosophy at Douai before Ent 30 September 1631 Tournai
1633-1635 After First Vows he remained in Tournai to complete his Philosophy.
1635-1639 He was thens sent to Avignon (LUGD) for Theology and was ordained there c 1639
1639-1647 Sent to Ireland he taught school at Cork and taught School, Preached and administered the Sacraments for about six or seven years.
1647-1649 Superior at Waterford Residence and then deposed by William Malone the Mission Superior eighteen months later, citing poor health and scrupulosity as reasons. The Visitor Mercure Verdier strongly disapproved of Malone's action, saying in his 1649 Report, that Tyrry had been deposed because he had taken the Nuncio’s part in observing the interdict, and having preached freely in defence of the Nuncio. By the time Verdier made his Visitation, Tyrry was already back in Cork..
1649 Sent back to Cork and worked in and around the city during all the “Commonwealth” regime. At the Restoration the General ordered the Superior of the Mission to assign a companion to Father Tyrry to share his labours. He died in Cork 03 May 1666

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
TYRER, FRANCIS At the age of 15 he joined the Society, After filling the office of Superior at Waterford, he was stationed at Cork, where Pere Verdier met him early in 1649. He reports him to be an eminent Preacher, very prudent and learned, and zealous for religious discipline. He was living in Ireland, on the 10th of June, 1659; but after that date I can trace him no longer.

Ussher, John, 1613-1698, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2198
  • Person
  • 14 October 1613-14 December 1698

Born: 14 October 1613, Dublin
Entered: 23 October 1632, Tournai, Belgium - Belgicae Province (BELG)
Ordained: c 1638, Bourges, France
Final vows: 14 October 1652
Died: 14 December 1698, Dublin - Romanae Province

Alias Walterson
Granduncle of Stephen - RIP 1762
Grandnephew of Anglican Bishop Henry Ussher and second cousin of Anglican Primate James Ussher
(Coll HIB ROM XII 36); RIP 14 December 1698 Dublin
Parents William and Mary Kennedy (cf Memoirs of the Usher families” Rev William Wright, Dublin 1689)
Studied Grammar and Humanities in Dublin under Jesuits, and Philosophy at Douai
1636 At Bourges FRA studying Theology
1650 Catalogue Ent 1629 Taught Humanities and Philosophy. Age 37. Came to Mission in 1639 and now teaching Grammar
1655 At Irish College Seville (The Rector is Spanish). Master of Conferences
1666 Consult of Dublin Residence. Preaches often and administers the Sacraments. Imprisoned for 2 months. Exiled to Spain for 4 years. On Mission 27 years.
John Usher writes from Ossuna 09 May 1657 to Fr Young, Rector Irish College Rome and mentions Fr Quin’s imprisonment and desires to be remembered to Br Howyard, Richard Quin etc

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Cousin of Ignatius Gough and of James Ussher’s family
Early education was in Humanities and two years Philosophy before Ent, and then four years Theology in the Society.
Imprisoned and deported for the Catholic faith.
Taught Humanities for four years and Philosophy; Prefect of a Sodality and Prefect of Studies (HIB CATS - ARSI);
1649 At Kilkenny, aged 35 and 18 years in the Society,and was teaching Rhetoric (Oliver, Stonyhurst MSS)
1666 Living at Dublin Residence and a Consultor there, engaged in Preaching and administering the Sacraments.
After two months imprisonment he was deported to Spain for four years (HIB CAT 1666 - ARSI)
Ignorant of Irish language, as were three others of the eleven native Dublin Jesuits of his day

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Son of Walter and Mary née Kenedy. Granduncle of Stephen.
Had received classical education at the Jesuit School Dublin and then Philosophy at Douai before Ent 23 October 1632 Tournai
1634-1638 After First Vows he was sent to Bourges for Theology and was Ordained there c 1638
1638-1654 He was then sent to Ireland and Kilkenny where he taught Humanities. He became a member of a group who defended the “Supreme Council” against the “censures” issued by the Nuncio Rinuccini.
1654-1658 After the fall of Kilkenny he found his way back to Dublin but was arrested and deported, 1654, to Spain. With William Malone he found refuge at the Irish College, Seville where Malone was appointed Rector and Ussher himself, Prefect of Studies. On the death of Malone he was appointed Rector but the local Provincial refused to carry out the orders of the General and intruded a Spaniard in Ussher's place.
1658 Ussher sent back to Ireland and worked in Galway until Restoration, after which he came back to Dublin, and where he held various posts over a long period of time : Socius to the Mission Superior; Consultor of the Mission; Procurator of the Mission. He died in Dublin 07 December 1698 and was buried in St. Catherine's churchyard.

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
USHER, JOHN. This Father was living in the early part of 1649, at Kilkenny : he was then 35 years old, of which he had spent 18 years in the Society. He was actually teaching Rhetoric. He was still living in the winter of 1663.

White, Martin Francis, 1633-1693, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2250
  • Person
  • 11 November 1633-18 June 1693

Born: 11 November 1633, County Waterford
Entered: 07 November 1651, Villagarcía, Galicia, Spain - Castellanae Province (CAST)
Ordained: c 1661, Valladolid, Spain
Final vows: 15 August 1675
Died: 18 June 1693, Waterford Residence

1658 At Bergara College teaching Grammar CAST. Has good talent, much progress in Philosophy. Age 25 Soc 7
1660 At Valladolid in Theology
His name appears on several books showing he belonged to Waterford Residence (Foley 836)
Could be referring to a Martin Francis White who enters in 1671

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Father Morris’s “Excerpts” give the RIP date
There are several books in Waterford College with his name and the words “Resid Waterford SJ”

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
1653-1657 After First Vows he was sent to study Philosophy (in which he showed-talent)) and then to Vergara (Basque Bergara) for Regency (1655-1675)
1657-1661 He was sent to St Ambrose, Valladolid for Theology and was Ordained there c 1661.
1661-1666 After completing formation he was made a Naval Chaplain, and according to a report “gave proof of mature and heroic virtue in an engagement in the Spring of 1664”
1666-1670/71 He was to have taken up the Rectorship at the Irish College, Seville, but the General changed his mind and appointed Ignatius Lombard instead. He instead succeeded Lombard as Procurator at Madrid
1670/71 Sent to Ireland and Waterford where he worked zealously until his death there 08 June 1693

White, Peter, 1608-1678, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2254
  • Person
  • 1608-08 July 1678

Born: 1608, County Waterford
Entered: 10 January 1627, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 1635, Granada, Spain
Final Vows 18 October 1643
Died: 08 July 1678, Jerez de la Frontera, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)

Nephew of Thomas White - RIP 1622;

Had studied Logic before Entry
1629 First Vows at Seville College
1633 At Granada College in 3rd year Theology
1648 Rector of Irish College Seville
1651 In Carmona College BAE Age 45 Soc 25. Taught Humanities, was Operarius, Minister, Procurator and Rector
1655 At Cadiz Confessor

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
Nephew of Thomas White. Relative or Archbishop Walsh and Wise (the Grand Prior)
1661-1666 Rector at Seville - “well known through Europe for his splendid qualities” says Father de Leon
His letters 1642-1646 are in Salamanca
He was a favourite Spiritual Director in Madrid.

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Nephew of Thomas White (RIP 1622) and a near relative of Archbishop Thomas Walsh of Cashel.
He had received his early education at Irish College Santiago before Ent 10 January 1627 Seville
1628+1635After First Vows he was sent for studies to Seville (1628-1631) and then to Granada where he was Ordained 1635. he finished his studies with a “Grand Act”
1635-1638 He did a year of Tertianship and was then sent to teach at BAE Colleges
1638-1645 He was sent to Madrid as Procurator of the Irish Seminaries and the Irish Mission
1645-1647 He returned to BAE
1647-1650 Rector Irish College Seville
1650-1656 He was sent to Cadiz as Operarius and Prefect of the Church
1656-1666 he was reappointed Rector of Irish College Seville
1666 He was sent to Jerez as Operarius and died there 08 July 1678
He was originally designated for the Irish Mission and was actually sent there in 1638, but then it was decided that the best work he could do for the Irish Mission was at Madrid and the Irish College in Seville.

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
WHITE, PETER. All that I can glean of him is from a letter of F. John Young, written from the Irish College at Rome, the 26th of October, 1661, in which he states that F. Peter White was then the Rector of the Irish College at Seville.

White, Thomas, 1556-1622, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2256
  • Person
  • 1556- 07 May 1622

Born: 1556, Clonmel, County Tipperary
Entered: 11 June 1593, Villagarcía, Galicia, Spain - Castellanae Province (CAST)
Ordained: pre Entry Valladolid, Spain
Died: 07 May 1622, Irish College, Santiago de Compostela, Spain - Castellanae Province (CAST)

Older Brother of Stephen - RIP 1647; Uncle of Peter White - RIP 1678; Cousin of William White - RIP 1625

Brother was Mayor of Clonmel
Before he entered he was Rector of Irish Seminary (Salamanca??). Salamanca SAT 1592 “Este Padre es Irlandes y està fuera “T or Y”)??) no se sabe lo particular del” C 08/09/1601
Studied 3 years Casus.
1606 Age 50 Soc 12 - was 9 years Rector of Irish Seminary Salamanca. Helps in Irish, English and Scotch business
1617 Ib CAST Age 60 Soc 24
His portrait is at Irish College Salamanca
In Irish Ecclesiastical Record 1922 pp578-597 there is an article on Fr Thomas White and the Irish College Salamanca. It appears to contain some first hand information and would be read to advantage by anyone wishing to give a life of him (JPR)

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronolgica” :
First Rector Irish College Lisbon 1593
With William White and Richard Conway he took possession of Santiago, Compostella (cf IER September 1874)
Mentioned honourably in a letter of Henry Fitzsimon 26 October 1611 (Irish Ecclesiastical Record March 1873)
Founder of Irish College Salamanca 1592, which was the first, or one of the first establishments the Irish Catholics obtained on the Continent after the Reformation
Juvencius (“Hist SJ” xiii p215) says he was an elderly secular priest at the time, and that he entered the Society, after putting the College (Salamanca) under the charge of our Fathers, under whose charge it remained until 1762 (expulsion of Jesuits from Spain). He was a man of great piety and zeal, and a great pillar of the Irish Church.
(cf his life by William McDonald DD in IER 1873)

Note from Bl Dominic Collins Entry
About a year after he arrived in Spain, he met Fr Thomas White, Rector of Salamanca, and by his advice entered the Society. Two of his fellow novices were Richard Walsh and John Lee

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Priestly education seems to have been provided mostly by an unknown Bishop uncle at Santiago and otherwise at Valladolid (according to Luis de Valdivia who wrote his obituary).
What seems certain is that members of White's family had settled in or near Santiago, e.g. Baiona. The year of Thomas's ordination cannot be determined but if we can trust all
the details in the obituary notice it was the Bishop uncle who Ordained him. It was at Valladolid that White first conceived the idea of organising a regime of life for wandering Irish scholars who wished to study for the priesthood. But it was at Salamanca 22 August 1592 that his work was placed on a permanent basis by the generous foundation effected by the King of Spain. All this before Ent 11 June 1593 Villagarcía.

After First Vows the whole of his life as a Jesuit was to be devoted to the education of Priests for Ireland.
1596-1603 First Rector Irish College Salamanca
1604 He visited the General at Rome to discuss the future of Salamanca and ways and means of promoting the Jesuit mission in Ireland. It seems he also visited Ireland that year but his stay cannot have been for more than a few weeks
1606-1608 Rector Irish College Lisbon
1612 Acting Superior at Santiago
1619 Acting Superior at Santiago until his death there 07 May 1622

The foregoing summary of his periods of offices seems almost to indicate periods of enforced leisure after his extensive journeyings in quest of alms for the support of his students or for that matter of any needy Irish student who wished to pursue his Priestly studies. His success as an organiser was known to Dr. Christopher Cusack who repeatedly asked the General to send White to help him with his own work for Irish seminarians in Belgium.

◆ Royal Irish Academy : Dictionary of Irish Biography, Cambridge University Press online :
White, Thomas
by Terry Clavin

White, Thomas (1556–1622), Jesuit and founder of Irish colleges in Europe, was the son of Pierce White of Clonmel and was born into one of the most staunchly catholic families in Ireland. A younger brother Stephen (qv) was a celebrated Jesuit antiquarian. His uncle Peter ran a famous catholic school in Waterford, where Thomas White was probably first taught. By 1582 he was studying theology in Valladolid and in 1593 he became a Jesuit. The city had a small community of Irish scholars at the time, most of whom were in great want. White took them into his house, providing for them out of his own resources. In the summer of 1592 he brought the students before King Phillip II at the royal villa of St Laurence; the king granted them some money. However, White sought another audience with the king, petitioning that he endow the Irish with a college. On 2 August 1592 the first Irish college on the continent was established at Salamanca, with White as its vice-rector and spiritual director.

Thereafter White dedicated himself to organising and furthering Irish academic life in Spanish territory, being also greatly pre-occupied with the Irish colleges founded in Lisbon, Santiago and Seville, acting as rector for the latter two. His stewardship of the college in Salamanca provoked controversy in May 1602 when ‘Red’ Hugh O’Donnell (qv) and Florence Conroy (qv) petitioned on behalf of the provinces of Ulster and Connaught against him. The northerners won out and in 1605 a Spanish superior was appointed. But the new system was not a success and in 1613 White was reinstated as head of the college. Although he never returned to Ireland, he received a steady stream of reports from missionaries there, many of whom were educated in his colleges, who constantly drew attention to the persecution of Irish catholics. He died 28 May 1622 at Santiago.

John Coppinger, Mnemosynion to the catholics of Ireland (1608); Edmund Hogan, Distinguished Irishmen of the 17th century (1894), 48–70; Patrick Power, Waterford and Lismore (1937), 25; T. Corcoran, ‘Early Irish Jesuit educators’, Studies, xxix (1940), 545–60; William Burke, History of Clonmel (1983 ed.), 464–9

Note from Paul Sherlock (Sherlog) Entry
Like many of his contemporaries, he left Ireland for Spain, aged 16, to study at the Jesuit-run Irish College at Salamanca. He landed in Bilbao in May 1612 and reached Salamanca at the beginning of July. Together with Thomas Vitus (Wyse), a fellow-student from Waterford, he was admitted to the Society of Jesus at Salamanca on 30 September 1612

Note from Bl Dominic Collins Entry
He moved to Spain, where he met an Irish Jesuit, Fr Thomas White (qv), at Corunna and, experiencing a change of heart of truly Ignatian proportions, he applied to enter the Society of Jesus. Due to his age and previous career, he was initially refused but was finally accepted as a brother-novice at the Jesuit College at Santiago de Compostela in late 1598

◆ James B Stephenson SJ The Irish Jesuits Vol 1I 1962
EARLY IRISH JESUIT EDUCATORS
Thomas White of Clonmel (1556-1622)

The outstanding figure in the constructive work for Irish Education, done by Irish Jesuits within the century 1540-1640 either within Ireland or abroad, was that of Father Thomas White of Clonmel. The two historians of his birthplace and of his diocese, Canon William Burke (History of Clonmel, 1907, pages 457-469) and Canon Patrick Power (Waterford and Lismore, 1937, page 24), following up the researches of Dr Edmond Hogan SJ, agree in giving the year of Thomas White's birth as 1556, the year of the death of St. Ignatius of Loyola. They also concur in stating that Thomas White and the more celebrated Father Stephen White SJ, (born 1574) were brothers, sons of Pierce White and brothers of James White, Vicar-Apostolic of Waterford; another brother, chief magistrate of Clonmel, was deposed from that civil office in 1606 as being a recusant Catholic. Near relatives, Patrick and Nicholas White, were heavily fined in Castle Chamber, at Dublin Castle, for refusal to attend Anglican services. In the entry lists (1601 1619) of the Irish College, Salamanca, more than one White is set down as a Waterford diocese student, coming from the school of Master John Flahy, who sent some fourteen students to the University of Salamanca in those years. In 1608 John Coppinger (Mnemosynion to the Catholics of Ireland) tells of how Father Thomas White, a Jesuit since 1593, devoted himself to the most practical academic service of organising Irish student life at Valladolid, Salamanca, Lisbon, Seville, and St. James of Compostella.
Was it not great charitie of Father Thomas White, naturall of Clonmel, seeing so many poor scholars of his nation in great miserie at Valladolid, having no means to continue their studie nor language to begge, having given over his private commoditie, did remcollect and reduce them to one place, which he maintained by his industrie and begging ?

Thomas White, as Canon Burke notes, was at Valladolid by 1582. Having in the summer of 1592 presented his assembled students to King Philip II at his Royal Villa of St. Laurence beside the city, he got from the King a large initial sum for housing, an annual grant for maintenance, and this Royal letter :

To the Rector, the Masters, and the Members of the University of Salamanca.

The young Irishmen who have been forming a kind of community in the city of Valladolid have decided to go to your city, in order to avail of the advantages there placed at their service for progress in Letters and Languages. A house has been prepared for them, in which they purpose to live under the direction of the Jesuit Fathers.

Besides providing for them a substantial annual grant, I desire them to deliver to you this letter, to charge you, as I now hereby do, to regard them as highly recommended to you. Favour and assist them to the utmost of your power. They have left their own country and all dear to them there for the service of God our Lord and for the preservation of the Catholic Faith; they declare their determination to return there to preach it and, if need be, to suffer martyrdom for it. They are to have in your University the good reception that they promise themselves. I am certain that you will see to this being done. With your aid and with what I feel sure of from the City of Salamanca (to which also I now write), these young Irishmen will be enabled to pursue their studies in content and freedom, and so will give full effect to their purpose.

Given at Valladolid, this second day of August 1592
Yo el Rey

Hieronimo de Cassell
A Secretis

Over the following thirty years (1592-1622) Thomas White laboured indefatigably at this great Catholic and national service. He was thus the initiator of the Irish Colleges in Spain, rapidly succeeded by those of France, Italy, Flanders, Bohemia. Always associated with the great Catholic Universities, they secured for our students, that fine university training, general and professional, which easily enabled them to outrank over all Europe, as at Paris, Louvain, Salamanca, Prague, the work essayed at the decadent Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and other heretical centres. The prestige thus everywhere achieved for Catholic Irish students, both in academic training and office, as well as through published works, on the lines initiated and on the foundations well laid by Thomas White or Clonmel and his Irish collaborators in Spain, was expanded and enhanced down to the destructive years of the French Revolution. Fr White's death at Santiago, on 28 May 1622, was thus most fittingly recorded by a Spanish pen “

This day, Sunday, at seven in the morning, Our Lord called to the reward of his labours and merits Father Thomas White. He died of fever, at the age of sixty-four and in the thirty-fourth year of his religious life. During that period he had worked with apostolic spirit in the service of God and of the Catholic faith, which, through the means of the Colleges which he had founded in Spain, has been preserved in Ireland. His life and virtues, so well known in the Society of Jesus, cannot receive full justice in this brief letter, His thoughts and desires were all for the glory of God and for the progress of the Colleges for which he toiled unceasingly. On the road and in the duties of an external character on which he was almost constantly engaged, Father White was a singularly recollected man, assiduous in prayer and meditation. Always resigned to the will of God, he never asked Him for anything (so he said shortly before his death) which was not accorded to him. God always blessed his petitions by moving the minds of Chapters, Prelates, and Princes with whom he was brought into contact to aid his work by their alms and gifts; they knew him well for a man of great zeal and rare virtue. He practised great mortification, and even in advanced years kept in use every day the hair shirt and discipline.

He was most simple both in dress and in manner; his usual food every day was a little bread and cheese, which he ate while journeying along the roads. To the lay fold whom he met he gave great edification; to his students he was a living model of piety. Through his efforts many religious institutes were filled with excellent members, and his native country received many holy priests and bishops, who acknowledge that under God they owe everything to Thomas White.

In his last illness he gave great evidence of the holiness of his life; and though death came unexpectedly while he was still organising this College of Santiago, he made very perfect acts of
conformity to God's will, bewailing his not having served Him more fervently. In the fifteen days of his illness he received Holy Communion three times and had Extreme Unction in good time. As we closed the commendation of his soul to God, he peacefully breathed his. last; his countenance retained all the appearance of life, All this gives us a special pledge of heaven; but we are greatly grieved for the loss to the Colleges of this Father, the Protector of his country. His death has caused a profound sensation in this City, where it is deeply lamented.

Father White's opening period of work for the new Irish College at Salamanca extended almost continuously from 1594 to 1605; it was often varied by his apostolic questings, described in this letter of Father de Castro SJ, composed and despatched from Santiago de Compostella on the very day of his holy and happy death. He was again Rector at Salamanca from 1617, and was constantly concerned with the sister Irish foundations : Lisbon stabilised by 1593, Santiago founded in 1612, Séville founded 1619. Midway in those three decades of unremitting toil, King Philip III had given its full formal rank as a foundation of the Spanish Crown to the “Royal College of Irish Nobles” (El Real Colegio de Nobles Irlandeses), the title borne to this day by this ancient and most fruitful foundation for our race and faith.

Timothy Corcoran SJ

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973
Father Thomas White 1558-1622
Fr Thomas White was born in 1558 of a family in Clonmel which gave many priests to the Church. His brother James was Vicar-Apostolic of Waterford, and another brother was the famous Fr Stephen White SJ. Thomas entered the Society when already a priest at 30 years of age.

His name should ever be held in benediction, for it was he who first started the idea of founding Colleges for the Irish on the Continent. In this way, he was instrumental in founding Valladolid, Salamanca, Lisbon, Seville and Santiago. It was he too who petitioned the General to establish the office of Procurator General for the Irish Mission, which post Fr James Archer was first to fill.

Fr Thomas died on Sunday May 28th 1622, 64 years of age after 34 spent as a Jesuit. In his obituary by Fr de Castro we read : “we are left overwhelmed with grief for what all the Colleges have lost in this Father and Protector of his country, and his death has created a profound sensation in this seminary and city, where it is bewailed with tears.

◆ George Oliver Towards Illustrating the Biography of the Scotch, English and Irish Members SJ
WHITE, THOMAS.The only occasion that I find this Father mentioned is in a letter of the 22nd of August, 1607. He was then in Spain, with F. James Archer. I cross him again six weeks later. F. Fitzsimon, in the Preface to his Treatise on the Mass, printed in 1611, mentions him.

White, William, 1583-1625, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2257
  • Person
  • 1583-19 September 1625

Born: 1583, County Waterford
Entered: 1605, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: 1611, Salamanca, Spain
Final Vows: 15 September 1622
Died: 19 September 1625, Irish College, Santiago de Compostela, Spain - Castellanae Province (BAE)

Cousin of Thomas White - RIP 1622 and Stephen White - RIP 1647

Had read Theology
1614 At Santiago Missioner and Confessor
1617 In Ireland Age 34 Soc 13
1621 In Ireland Age 39 Soc 17 Mission 8. Now Valetudinarian
1622 In East Munster
1625 At Compostella Age 41 Soc 23. Missionary and Superior of Irish Seminary at Compostella
In Carlow College there is a book marked “Missio HIB SJ Waterford Guliemus White”

◆ Fr Edmund Hogan SJ “Catalogica Chronologica” :
A Writer; Brough up in Andalusia;
In the company of Thomas White and Richard Conway he took possession of Irish College at Santiago de Compostella, April 1613, the King having ordered that it should be place under the care of Irish Jesuits.
1613-1622 In East Munster
A good Theologian and Preacher
He is named in a letter of Christopher Holywood (alias Thomas Lawndry) Superior of the Irish Mission 04 November 1611 (Irish Ecclesiastical Record January 1874)

◆ Fr Francis Finegan SJ :
Son of John and Anastatia née Comerton. Cousin of Thomas White (RIP 1622),
Had studied Humanities and Philosophy under John Flahy in Ireland, and then he entered the Irish College Salamanca 06 March 1602 before Ent 1605 Seville
1607-1611 After First Vows he was sent to studies at Royal College Salamanca, was Ordained there c 1611 and then sent to the Irish College Salamanca as Confessor.
After that he was sent to the Irish College Santiago as Minister and on the Missions in Parishes locally
1615-1622 Sent to Ireland and Waterford where he worked as Operarius for seven years.
1623 Sent to Irish College Santiago to succeed his cousin Thomas White as Rector following his death September 1623. He was in declining health and the General decided he should go back to Ireland as soon as his successor could be nominated, but he died in Office 19 September 1625
His Spanish Superiors regarded him as endowed beyond the ordinary for government and preaching .

Wulfe, James, 1724-1783, Jesuit priest

  • IE IJA J/2273
  • Person
  • 1724-19 June 1783

Born: 26 February 1724, El Puerta de Santa Maria, Cadiz, Spain
Entered: 29 August 1748, Seville, Spain - Baeticae Province (BAE)
Ordained: c 1754,
Died: 19 June 1783, Ferrara, Italy - Peruvianae Province (PER)

1751 or 1754 He went to Peru certainly there in 1754 and already ordained.
Procurator in several colleges.
At the time of the expulsion he was acting as Prefect of the Houses of Retreats and the Confraternity of Loreto at Arequipa. He survived a journey, and landed in Italy, where he joined other Spanish exiles. He died at Ferrara in 1783.

◆ James B Stephenson SJ Menologies 1973

Father James Woulfe 1724-1783
Fr James Woulfe was born in Puerto de Santa Maria in Spain of Irish parents, in 1724, and entered the Society at Seville in 1748.

By the year 1754 he was in Peru and already a priest. At the time of expulsion he was Acting Prefect of Houses of Retreat at Arequipa. He survived the horrors of the voyage home and landed in Italy, where he joined his exiled Spanish brethren.

He died at Ferrara in 1783.